WI - Cormorant Research Group Scientific Literature - Great cormorant updated on 28-12-2012

Scientific literature on the
Great Cormorant - Phalacrocorax carbo

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Volponi S. 2011. Il Cormorano, predatore sulla cresta dell’onda. Picus: 71: 50-61.


HOLLAND B.R., SPENCER H.G., WORTHY T.H. & KENNEDY M. 2010. Identifying Cliques of Convergent Characters: Concerted Evolution in the Cormorants and Shags. Syst. Biol., 59(4): 433–445. [Abstract. — A phylogenetic tree comprising clades with high bootstrap values or other strong measures of statistical support is usually interpreted as providing a good estimate of the true phylogeny. Convergent evolution acting on groups of characters in concert, however, can lead to highly supported but erroneous phylogenies. Identifying such groups of phylogenetically misleading characters is obviously desirable. Here we present a procedure that uses an independent data source to identify sets of characters that have undergone concerted convergent evolution. We examine the problematic case of the cormorants and shags, for which trees constructed using osteological and molecular characters both have strong statistical support and yet are fundamentally incongruent. We find that the osteological characters can be separated into those that fit the phylogenetic history implied by the molecular data set and those that do not. Moreover, these latter nonfitting osteological characters are internally consistent and form groups of mutually compatible characters or “cliques,” which are significantly larger than cliques of shuffled characters.We suggest, therefore, that these cliques of characters are the result of similar selective pressures and are a signature of concerted convergence.]

Nessing R. 2010. Zur Herkunft der Kormorane Phalacrocorax carbo in der Wismarbucht/Mecklenburg anhand von Ringfunden. [Abstract. A total of 29 ring recoveries (RR) from 21 Cormorants found in Wismar Bay, Western Baltic, Federal German State of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, were evaluated. Seventeen recoveries (58.62%) were of Danish ringed Cormorants, three each (10.34 % respectively) were from Norway and the Netherlands, two each (6.89 % respectively) were from Germany and Finland and single recoveries (each 3.44 %) from Estonia and Sweden. The chronological division of the recoveries was as follows: May = 1 RR (1 bird), June = 9 RR (7 birds), July = 10 RR (8 birds), August = 4 RR (3 birds), September = 1 RR (1 bird) and October = 4 RR (3 birds).]


Fonteneau, F., Paillisson, J.-M. & Marion, L. 2009. Relationships between bird morphology and prey selection in two sympatric Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo subspecies during winter. Ibis, 151, 286–298.


Smith G. C., Parrott D. & Robertson P. A. 2008. Managing wildlife populations with uncertainty: cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45: xx/xx. [Abstract. 1. Managing wildlife populations for conservation, control or harvesting involves uncertainty. Nevertheless, decisions need to be made with the available evidence. The two main sources of uncertainty are parameter estimates and structural uncertainty. Structural uncertainty in models is not included as often as parameter uncertainty. 2. We present an approach where parameter and structural uncertainty (the existence and strength of density dependence) is included within the iterations of a stochastic model. The example system used in this study is the over-wintering English population of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo L., which cause damage to inland fisheries interests and, in autumn 2004, prompted a change in government policy, increasing the numbers of birds that can be shot under licence. 3. A stochastic Monte Carlo annual population model was produced to examine the effect of changes to the numbers of birds shot each year. An index of the annual population size was converted to a population estimate based on the latest available data, used to determine annual growth rates, and the presence and strength of density dependence. 4. There is strong evidence for density dependence in the data, which suggests the population is currently slightly above carrying capacity, with a mean growth rate of 4–6% per annum. It is estimated that the 1300 birds shot under licence in 2004/05 represents about 4·5% of the English population, and if this level of culling continues the population would be expected to decline by 3% by 2007, compared to the long-term average, and increase the risk of decline by 4%. The a priori preferred model, which includes all uncertainty, gave predictions for the first year (6·2% population decline) in agreement with field data (6% decline). 5. The model was used to produce short-term population projections, with the understanding that Adaptive Resource Management (ARM) will be adopted to iteratively update the parameters and model each year, feeding back into limiting the numbers of available licences should the population decline more than expected. 6. Synthesis and applications. We recommend the approach of including parameter and structural uncertaintywithin a single model, where possible, with the proportion of iterations which utilize a particular structure dependent on the weight of evidence for that structure. This will produce results with wider confidence intervals, but ensures that the evidence for any particular model is not over-interpreted.]




Bregnballe T. 2006. Age-related fledgling production in great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo: influence of individual competence and disappearance of phenotypes. J. Avian Biol., 37: 149-157. [Abstract. Age-related reproductive performance of great cormorants\i Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis was studied in a tree nesting colony in Denmark in relation to age-related improvements of competence and progressive disappearance of phenotypes. Within-individual changes in fledgling production were measured, and cross-sectional analyses were applied. The within-individual analyses showed that competence improved with age and/or that individuals showed restraint to optimize their reproductive effort. The within-individual improvements were three to six times higher among individuals that survived and returned to breed beyond the fourth breeding attempt than among individuals disappearing from the breeding population before the fourth breeding attempt. Taking this into account the within-individual improvements explained 70-90% of the age-effect observed in the population over the youngest ages. Effects of breeding experience were significant for females, but only within the group of individuals that were present in the breeding population beyond the age of five years. In males, improvements arose because of unknown factors related to age. Individual great cormorants that bred beyond the age of five years had higher reproductive success, on average, than birds disappearing from the breeding population earlier in life. This supports the differential survival hypothesis. However, the effect on the population mean was partly counterbalanced by late recruitment of other inferior breeders. It is concluded that the enhancement in fledgling production with increasing age was primarily an effect of age-related improvements of competence and secondly an effect of progressive disappearance of phenotypes.]

Marion L. & Le Gentil J. 2006. Ecological segregation and population structuring of the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Europe, in relation to the recent introgression of continental and marine subspecies. Evolutionary Ecology, 20: 193-216. [Abstract. Populations of the ‘‘continental’’ Great Cormorant P. c. sinensis have expanded from north-eastern Europe towards the western part of the range of the ‘‘marine’’ P. c. carbo breeding in the United Kingdom and France. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis of ecological segregation between subspecies by analysing the structuring of the European populations. Sequencing the mtDNA of 231 birds belonging to 20 colonies revealed 38 haplotypes based on 25 polymorphic sites (5.76% sequence divergence). P. c. sinensis (‘‘S’’) was well con.rmed, but usual P. c. carbo formed two coastal populations, the real P. c. carbo ‘‘C’’ mainly in the western part of the range (United Kingdom, coastal France), and also in Norway and Sardinia, and ‘‘N’’, branched to the Japanese Cormorant P. capillatus and probably isolated by glaciations, mainly present in the Nordic range (Norway, but also on the coasts from Sweden to Brittany), we named P. c. norvegicus. In a variable position in the trees but close to C is a group of undetermined origin haplotypes, named U, also present in both traditional ranges. The new tree-nesting colonies in Brittany are clearly a mixture of S and the two clades C and N previously described as P. c. carbo , with a decreasing proportion of C+N between 1993 (67%), 1996 (60%) and 2002 (33%) for the pioneering Grand-Lieu colony. These results con.rmed the current introgression of continental populations in the western range, with probable hybridization. Although the subspecies can switch habitats locally due to social behaviour and migrations, the ecological segregation between the two usual subspecies appears to be largely con.rmed in Europe.]

Ropert-Coudert Y., Gremillet D. & KatoA. 2006. Swim speeds of free-ranging great cormorants. Marine Biology,


Cech M. 2005. [Potrava kormorána velkého Phalacrocorax carbo na Vltav Aím Brodu v zimním období 2004/2005.] Diet of great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo at Vltava River in in winter period 2004/2005 - final report. [Abstract. The diet of wintering great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) was studied at Vltava 28P and Vltava 29MP fishery using analyses of regurgitated pellets and determination of regurgitated undigested fish and individual bones collected on the ground below the roosting trees. The purpose of this study was i) to evaluate whether the long term decline in brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario) and grayling (Thymallus thymallus) catches demonstrated in angler statistics (for brown trout since year 1999, for grayling, however, since year 1996) is really caused by predation pressure of wintering cormorants and ii) to assess real impact of these birds on the ichthyofauna of Vltava 28P and Vltava 29MP fishery. In total 389 fish individuals of 14 fish species and 6 fish families was distinguished from head identification bone elements (maxillare, dentale, praeoperculare, operculare, os pharyngeum, glossohyale) and from undigested fish remains. The diet of cormorants was dominated by roach (Rutilus rutilus, 33.9% in abundance, size ranging from 10 to 30 cm TL), chub (Leuciscus cephalus, 25.5%, 7-35 cm) and perch (Perca fluviatilis, 24.7%, 9-37 cm). Other fish species, like bleak (Alburnus alburnus), bream (Abramis brama), white bream (Blicca/Abramis bjoerkna), carp (Cyprinus carpio), dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), pike (Esox lucius), bullhead (Cottus gobio), ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), zander (Sander lucioperca), grayling and trout sp. were of minor importance in cormorant diet. Due to a lack of praevomers in case of “trout” it was not possible to determine these remains to species like brown trout or allochtonous rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus alpinus), which are also regularly stocked to the above fisheries. The largest fish caught by cormorants was zander 41 cm, the heaviest fish caught by cormorants was perch 734 g. Average length of preyed fish was 18.6 cm and average weight was 114 g. Only three salmonids (length 29, 22 and 15 cm) and one grayling (24 cm) were found in collected food remains. First cormorants were seen at Vltava 28P and Vltava 29MP fishery during last decade of November, last cormorants left the locality in mid March. Abundance of birds peaked in mid January when there were seen 150 roosting individuals. Summarizing this, the overall presence of cormorants on targeted fisheries was calculated as 6 540 bird days and the total fish withdrawal comprised 37 638 fish (3 924 kg). This value consisted of e.g. 12 772 roach (1 608 kg), 9 579 chub (971 kg), 9 289 perch (1 028 kg) but only 290 trout (31 kg) and 97 grayling (15 kg). The reason for such a surprisingly low contribution of trout and grayling to cormorant diet is probably overfishing of grayling in previous years (cumulative effect of both cormorants and anglers) and ability of territorial trout to hide in well known habitat (diet of cormorants, as in other studies, was highly dominated by shoaling non-territorial fishes). The difficult access to trout in complex habitat is probably also a reason, why cormorants did not visit upstream Vltava 29P fishery, where the population of brown trout is still well developed. Since cormorants were frequently seen preying on Vltava 28P and Vltava 29MP fishery and other near-by interesting localities like carp ponds and huge Lipno Reservoir were below the ice cover for most of the winter (corresponding with results of diet analyses) it could be concluded that their predation pressure was concentrated almost exclusivelly on the above fisheries. From these waters, wintering cormorants yielded over 52 kg of fish per hectare. For the long-lasting coexistence of protected species (great cormorant), well developed fish communities and satisfied anglers (fly fishermen particularly) at Vltava River in Vyšší Brod it is suggested to regulate by shooting numbers of cormorants to the level of 5-10 wintering individuals.]

Engen S. Lande R. Saether B-E. & Bregnballe T. 2005. Estimating the pattern of synchrony in fluctuating populations. Journal Animal Ecology, 74: 601–611. [Abstract. A central question in population ecology is how to estimate the effects of common environmental noise, e.g. due to large-scale climate patterns, on the synchrony in population fluctuations over large distances. We show how the environmental variance can be split into components generated by several environmental variables and how these can be estimated from time-series observations. With a set of time-series observations from different locations not necessarily covering the same time span, it is shown how the spatial autocorrelation of the residual variance component, not explained by the covariates and corrected for demographic stochasticity, can be estimated using classical multinormal theory. Some previous results on spatial scaling in continuous linearized models on log scale are extended to also provide the scaling for the residuals. This is shown to be close to the spatial scaling of the autocorrelation in the environmental noise and only weakly affected by migration. The logistic model of local population dynamics with the NAO index as the only covariate is fitted to 22 populations of the Continental great cormorant Phalacrorax carbo sinensis. The spatial scale of the environmental noise is estimated to be about 155 km. The NAO index alone accounts for about 10% of the total environmental variance and nearly all of the regional environmental variance (long-distance environmental autocorrelation).]

Evrard G., Dermien F., De Gottal P., Monmart A., Pourignaux F., Vanmeerbeeck P. & Paquest J-Y. 2005. Estimation de la pression de peche du Grand Cormoran (Phalacrocorax carbo) en Meuse belge par le suivi de la dispersion matinale des individus. Aves, 42: 121-133.

Galvan I. 2005. Migration strategies of the Great Cormorant wintering inland in Spain. Waterbirds 28 (3): 301-307. [Abstract. Searches for color-banded Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) were carried out during 2002-2004 at an inland roost in Spain in order to determine the origin of the birds, to measure the length of stay and withinand between-seasons site fidelity in relation to age. Contrary to expectations, neither the stay duration at the roost nor the site fidelity depended on age. The low stay duration (the majority of the birds were sighted only once) and return rates suggest nomadic behavior of the wintering cormorants. The cormorants that stayed longer at the roost also returned there more times during one season, suggesting that site fidelity may have an adaptive value for wintering cormorants.]

Gremillet D., Enstipp M. R., Boudi M. & Liu H. 2005. Do cormorants injure fish without eating them? An underwater video study. Marine Biology,

Gremillet D., Kuntz G. Gilbert C., Woakes A.J., Butler P.J. & le Maho Y. 2005. Cormorants dive through the Polar night. Biology Letter,

Jenard Ph. 2005. Évolution de la population nicheuse du Grand Cormoran (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) en Hainaut occidental entre 1992 et 2005. [Evolution of the breeding population of the Great Cormorant in the Western part of Wallonia (Belgium, Hainaut Province) between 1992 and
2005]. Aves, 42 (4) : 313-324.

Newson S.E., Hughes B., Hearn R. & Bregnballe T. 2005. Breeding performance and timing of breeding of inland and coastal breeding Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in England and Wales. Bird Study, 52(1): 10-17.

Voisin R. & Posse B. 2005. Le passage automnal du Grand Cormoran Phalacrocorax carbo ŕ travers les Alpes, ŕ partir de la basse vallée du Rhône (Vaud/Valais) [Great Cormorant autumn migration across the Alps from the lower Rhône valley, cantons of Vaud and Valais]. Nos Oiseaux, 52(1): 3-16.


Eskildsen J. 2004. Skarver 2004. Naturovervĺgning. Danmarks Miljřundersřgelser. - Arbejdsrapport fra DMU, nr. 199. [Abstract. In 2004 the number of counted cormorant nests in Denmark was estimated at 39.631 nests in 59 colonies. This was an increase of 6% compared to 2003; the colonies near the coast of Kattegat holding the majority of the increase. The number of colonies was the highest number ever and 14% more than in 2003. The number of nests in 2004 is very close to the average of 39,000 nests during 1994-2003, varying between 36.700 and 42.800 nests. Regulation of cormorant nests was intensified in 2004 compared to years before. A minimum of 6,700 nests was regulated, which corresponds to 17% of the total number of counted cormorant nests in Denmark in 2004. Regulation of nests increased by 43% compared to 2003. In 2004, 83% was regulated by oiling, i.e. spraying the eggs with a fluid that closes the pores of the eggs and consequently kills the embryo. Regulations took place in 23 colonies (39%). Despite the intensified regulations, the number of colonies increased in 2004 compared to 2003. The availability of food resources seems to be the main factor of the fluctuations during the last 10 years.]

Galvan I. 2004. Age-related Spatial Segregation of Great Cormorants in a Roost. Waterbirds 27(4): 377-381. [Abstract. Agonistic interactions between Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) in a roost have been studied to detect possible social dominance causing spatial segregation in relation to age. Adults tended to dominate firstand second-winter birds, and were found relatively higher in the roost, where they are probably the safer from human intruders. Because of the high proportion of adults, attacks frequently involved two adults. No differences were found between the frequency and success of attacks in relation to the age of the birds arriving to the roost, perhaps indicating that pre-attack display represented an efficient form of agonistic communication. The number of attacks was not correlated with the number of cormorants in the roost, probably due to a constant density of birds, unaffected by the size of the roost.]

Lorentsen S.-H., Grémillet D. & Nymoen G. H. 2004. Annual Variation in Diet of Breeding Great Cormorants: Does it Reflect Varying Recruitment of Gadoids? Waterbirds, 27: 161-169. [Abstract. Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) diet was studied during three years (2001-2003) in an area where Arctic Kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) is extensively distributed off the central Norwegian coast. A total of 608 diet samples, 378 (62.2%) chick regurgitations, 22 (3.6%) whole fish, and 208 (34.2%) pellets were collected from the colonies at regular intervals during the chick-rearing period. From these samples a total of 1,013 food items (after pairing the otoliths) were isolated, representing 18 fish species. Gadoids, mainly Cod (Gadus morhua) and Saithe (Pollachius virens) dominated the diet (75% numerically, 86% by biomass). During the first year of the study, Cod represented nearly 50% of the diet, but decreased to 13% in 2003. At the same time, the occurrence of Saithe in the diet increased from 23% to 65%. For Saithe age II-group fish dominated the diet in 2001, and I- and II- group dominated in 2002 and 2003. For Cod 0-group fish dominated the diet in 2001 and 0- and I-group fish dominated in 2002 and 2003. The decrease in Cod in the diet of the Great Cormorant most probably reflected the decrease in the Norwegian coastal Cod population, and that the increase in Saithe in the diet is related to the relative increase in the abundance of this fish prey as the abundance of Cod decreased.]

Naito, W., Murata, M. & Yoshida K. 2004. Evaluation of population-level ecological risks of fish-eating birds to dioxinlike PCBs exposure. Organohalogen Compounds, 66: 3350-3355.

Newson S. E., Hughes B., Russell I. C., Ekins G. R & Sellers R. M. 2004. Sub-specific differentiation and distribution of Great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Europe. Ardea 92(1): 3-10. [Abstract. The use of biometrics for sub-specific differentiation of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Europe was investigated using skins of known sub-species and showed that gular pouch angle is a useful character for assigning individuals to sub-species. Where further measurements of bill depth and bill length can be taken, sex-specific discriminant functions allow the majority of individuals to be correctly identified to sub-species. The identity of 261 Great Cormorants of unknown sub-species shot (under MAFF licence) on inland water bodies in England during the winters of 1997-98 and 1998-99 were investigated; 66% were P.c.carbo and 34% P.c.sinensis. This suggests that P.c.carbo is currently the predominant sub-species inland in England during the winter.The findings of this paper now allow for long-term and cost-effective monitoring of sub-species occurrence and population development in the UK, as well as in other European countries where the two sub-species may occur.]

Paillisson JM., Carpentier A., Le Gentil J. & Marion L. 2004. Space utilization by a cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo L.) colony in a multi-wetland complex in relation to feeding strategies. Comptes. Rendue Biologies, 327: 493–500. [Abstract. In this study, we investigated the response of inland breeding cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo to a complex spatial configuration of feeding habitats in relation to social and individual feeding strategies. The numbers of feeding trips outside the colony site (Lake Grand-Lieu, western France), where only solitary fishing is used by cormorants, and the number of birds fishing on the lake where social fishing predominates were investigated during the breeding season and compared with the fledging period. From the investigation of feeding trip traffic, we identified three major habitats used by cormorants in the vicinity of the colony site (25 km around the colony site) that accounted for 94.1 of the IN flights and 92.0% of the OUT flights (N = 1745 arrivals and 2404 departures respectively), and notably one area that accounted for 58% of total flights although it is the furthest away. No fundamental change in the relative significance of these feeding grounds for solitary fishing cormorants was found throughout the breeding season, even in a between-years comparison (1996–2001), in contrast to what has often been found elsewhere. Although the peak of foraging activity in the surrounding habitats and also within the lake waters largely coincided with the time when the majority of young had fledged, the index of cormorant numbers (ratio between bird numbers at a given time and that for a baseline date) on the lake remained at a high level until late August compared to movements outside the lake, as a result of regular social fishing (84.9 ± 4% of fishing numbers). From these findings, we discuss factors governing the selection of feeding grounds throughout the breeding season in relation to energy considerations, feeding strategies and food resources.]

Paquet J-Y. 2004 Les recensements coordonnés des Grands Cormorans (Phalacrocorax carbo) hivernants en Wallonie et a Bruxelles hiver 2003-2004. Aves, 41(1-2):62-64.

Persson C. & Stenberg P. 2004. Growth rate of juvenile Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in the nestling stage. Published on Internet url: http://home.swipnet.se/~w-48087/faglar/materialmapp/skarvmapp/skarvmenu.html (downloaded on 04/05/2005). (text only version).

Ribak G., Weihs D., Arad Z. 2004. How do cormorants counter buoyancy during submerged swimming? J. Exp. Biol., 207(12: 2101-14. [Abstract. Buoyancy is a de-stabilizing force for diving cormorants that forage at shallow depths. Having to counter this force increases the cost of transport underwater. Cormorants are known to be less buoyant than most water birds but are still highly buoyant (rho= approximately 0.8 kg m(-3)) due to their adaptations for aerial flight. Nevertheless, cormorants are known to dive at a wide range of depths, including shallow dives where buoyancy is maximal. We analyzed the kinematics of underwater swimming of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in a shallow pool to discover and evaluate the mechanisms countering buoyancy while swimming horizontally. The birds maintained a very uniform cyclic paddling pattern. Throughout this cycle, synchronized tilting of the body, controlled by the tail, resulted in only slight vertical drifts of the center of mass around the average swimming path. We suggest that this tilting behavior serves two purposes: (1) the elongated bodies and the long tails of cormorants, tilted at a negative angle of attack relative to the swimming direction, generate downward directed hydrodynamic lift to resist buoyancy and (2) during the propulsive phase, the motion of the feet has a significant vertical component, generating a vertical component of thrust downward, which further helps to offset buoyancy. The added cost of the drag resulting from this tilting behavior may be reduced by the fact that the birds use a burst-and-glide pattern while swimming.]

Strod T., Arad Z., Izhaki I. & Katzir G. 2004. Cormorants keep their power: visual resolution in a pursuit-diving bird under amphibious and turbid conditions.Curr. Biol., 14(10): R376-7. Supplemental data.

Wahl J., T. Keller & Sudfeldt C. 2004. Distribution and numbers of the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Germany in January 2003 – results of the pan-German night roost census. Vogelwelt, 125: 1-10. (in German).


Eskildsen J. 2003. Skarver. Naturovervĺgning. Arbejdsrapport fra DMU, nr. 190. [Abstract. I 2003 blev antallet af skarvreder i Danmark opgjort til 37,313. Det er en tilbakegang pĺ godt 8 % i forhold til antallet i 2002. Tilbagegangen skete isćr langs Kattegats kyster samt i de store, gamle kolonier: Vorsř, Ormř, Brćndegĺrd Sř og Tyreholm. Antallet af skarvreder i Danmark har gennem de sidste 10 ĺr ligget ret konstant pĺ ca 39,000 reder i gennemsnit.]

Govedic M. & Janzekovic F. 2003. [The diet of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo on the Drava river in the winter of 1995/96 (Slovenia).] Acrocephalus, 24(116): 11-19. [Abstract. Diet of the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo was studied by means of regurgitated pellets collected in March 1996 at night roost along the Drava river near Miklav`na Dravskem polju.Altogether,remains of 741 fish were found.Total weight of these fish was estimated at 115 kg.The diet consisted of 14 fish species (Chub Leuciscus cephalus ,Nase Chondrostoma nasus ,Barbel Barbus barbus ,Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella ,Gold Fish or Prussian Carp Carassius auratus, Bream Abramis brama, Common Carp Cyprinus carpio , Danube Roach Rutilus pigus virgo ,Roach Rutilus rutilus ,Perch Perca fluviatilis, Ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus,Striped Ruffe Gymnocephalus schraetzer ,Zingel Zingel zingel and Pike Esox lucius ).The diet was dominated by Perch (52.5% by number,53.1%by mass)and Nase (14.0%by number,22.3%by mass). Most of the fishes consumed by Cormorants belonged to the 18-22 cm (32.1%) size class. Average length of consumed Perch was 21.9 cm (median 21.5 cm, Q1-Q3: 18.9-25.2 cm)and 26.7 cm of Nase (median 25.3 cm,Q1-Q3: 22.3-31.9 cm). Average length of all prey in the diet of Great Cormorant was 21.3 cm (median 20.9 cm, Q1-Q3: 18.1-25.2 cm, min-max: 6.1-46.3 cm).Specimens of the first quartile constituted 6.4% mass of all prey,of the second and third quartiles 42.2%,and of the last quartile 51.3% mass of all prey.Length frequency distribution of the Perch,especially low proportion of small Perch in the Cormorants'diet,depended on standing waters'ice cover. Small Perches are abundant in standing waters,as they feed on plankton, which is most abundant there.In the winter of 1995/96 all standing waters in the Drava region were covered with ice and fishes in these waters were inaccessible to Cormorants.But as Ruffe and bigger Perches are not restricted to plankton diet,they also frequented flowing nonfrozen waters and were thus accessible to Cormorants.The proportion of Perch in Cormorants'diet was probably higher than in feeding habitat,while the proportion of Nase,Barbel and Chub was probably lower than in feeding habitat.]

Gremillet. D., Wright G., Lauder A., Carss D. N. & Wanless S. 2003. Modelling the daily food requirements of wintering great cormorants: a bioenergetics tool for wildlife management. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40: 266–277. [Summary. Great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo are large piscivorous birds which occur in Asia, Australia, Africa, Europe and North America. Their European breeding population has increased by at least 15% per annum over the last 15 years, reaching a total of 200,000 pairs in the late 1990s. There are concerns that this increase is adversely affecting freshwater fish populations throughout Europe, but real assessment requires a detailed knowledge of cormorant food requirements. The daily food intake (DFI) of great cormorants has been measured during the breeding season, but little is known about DFI in winter when these poorly insulated birds experience consistently low temperatures. DFI is likely to vary widely according to abiotic and biotic conditions, making predictions about impact particularly difficult. We modelled DFI for great cormorants wintering at Loch Leven, Scotland, using behavioural data recorded via radio-tracking of free-ranging individuals, metabolic measurements obtained from captive birds, and published data. DFI was estimated to be 672 g/day (predicted maximum range 441–1095 g/day, values similar to DFI of great cormorants breeding under temperate conditions and of other aquatic bird species.During winter great cormorants at Loch Leven decreased their average dive time and increased dive efficiency (higher proportion of time spent underwater). They nonetheless spent 130 min/day in the water and allocated more than a third of their daily energy budget to diving. In view of the need for the sound management of cormorant populations, we present a general bioenergetics model, based on simple behavioural and dietary inputs, that computes an estimate of DFI outside the breeding season for a range environmental conditions and habitats. An interactive computer programme for this model is available (http://www.cepe.c-strasbourg.fr) to help scientists and managers estimate local values for average, minimum and maximum DFI.]

Katzir G. & Howland H.C. 2003. Corneal power and underwater accommodation in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis). J. Exp. Biol., 206(5): 833-41. [Abstract. In great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), corneal refractive powers, determined by photokeratometry, ranged between 52.1 diopters (52.1 D) and 63.2 D. Photorefractive reflexes, determined by infrared video photorefraction, indicated that in voluntary dives the cormorants accommodate within 40-80 ms of submergence and with myopic focusing relative to the photorefractor attained when prey was approximately one bill length from the plane of the eye. Underwater, the pupils were not constricted and retained diameters similar to those in air. These results support previously reported capacities of lenticular changes in amphibious birds yet do not fully correspond with earlier reports in terms of the coupling of iris constriction with accommodation, and time course.]

Murata M., Iseki N., Masunaga S. & Nakanishi J. 2003. Estimation of effects of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs on wildlife population: a case study on common cormorant. Chemosphere, 53(4): 337-345. [Abstract. We presented a method for quantitatively evaluating the effects of chemical pollutants in the environment on a wildlife population. We expressed the effects of exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in Tokyo Bay sediment on a common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) population in two ways. One was the changes in the intrinsic growth rate, and the other was the changes in the gross population size. The effects of exposure to the compounds were estimated by using the method of population ecology and available field data. Common cormorant population at Shinobazu Pond in Tokyo, Japan during 1974–1986 was selected as the target population. Intrinsic growth rate or gross size of the population based on the calculated residual level of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in the period was estimated to decrease to 89% or 85% of that without exposure to the compounds, respectively.]

Murata M., Masunaga S. & Nakanishi J. 2003. Population-level ecological risk assessment of planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) around Tokyo Bay, Japan. Environ Toxicol Chem.. 22(10): 2508-2518. [Abstract. Assessment of population-level ecological risk posed by planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PCAHs; including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxintike polychlorinated biphenyls) in sediment of Tokyo Bay (Japan) and rivers via fish ingestion to the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) population was conducted by means of a probabilistic approach. Population decline risk was used as an indicator of population-level effects and compared with other indicators of effects. The increment of egg mortality risk posed by current p-PCAH levels was estimated to be 11.7%. This risk was interpreted in terms of both the increase of the risk of population decline in a 10-year period on a recently abundant cormorant population, and the reduction in population growth rate (r). Population decline risks of 20% and below were estimated to be 16% for the reference population and 32% for the exposed population, whereas the reduction in r was estimated to be 10%. The risk expressed in terms of population viability is a more susceptible measure and a more easily understandable indicator than both egg mortality risk as an individual-level risk and the reduction in r. Translating the effects due to pollutants into the risk on population viability will make ecological risk assessment more conductive to risk management.]

Shmuel M., Arad Z., Katzir G. & Izhaki I. 2003. Developmental rates and morphometrics of the sympatric Pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus) and Great cormorant (P. carbo sinensis). Israel Journal of Zoology, 49: 159-173. [Abstract. We compared growth rates and adult morphological traits in two sympatric cormorant species,the pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus) and the great cormorant (P.carbo sinensis ), in Israel.The smaller P.pygmeus exhibited higher developmental rates than P. carbo sinensis, as expressed in the growth rate constant (K) of body mass and of various body parts (bill,wing, tarsus, primaries,and tibia lengths).The consequences of the higher developmental rate of P.pygmeus are early fledging and a relatively low body mass of fledglings. We suggest that several proximate ecological and developmental factors such as risk of nest predation,body temperature regulation,and hydrodynamics act in concert to promote rapid development in chicks of P.pygmeus. However,the four-fold lower body mass of the adult P.pygmeus is probably the most important physiological constraint that might explain its rapid growth rate in comparison with P .carbo sinensis. The body mass and the size of various body parts of adult P .carbo sinensis are much higher than those of adult P.pygmeus .This difference in adult morphological attributes, together with the marked differences in growth rates between the two species, should be reflected in different ecological functions that promote ecological segregation between them. Therefore,the conservation policies and future practical solutions of the cormorant-–fisheries conflict should be species-specific.]


AA.VV. 2002. Der Kormoran (Phalacrocorax carbo) im Spannungsfeld zwischen Naturschutz und Teichbewirtschaftung. Sächsische Landesstiftung Natur und Umwelt, Dresden, Germany. Pp. 1-115.

Bregnballe T. & Eskildsen J. 2002. Menneskelige indgreb i danske skarvkolonier 1994-2001. Arbejdsrapport fra DMU nr 162 2002.

Carss D. N. & Ekins G. R. 2002. Further European integration: Mixed sub-species colonies of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Britain: Colony establishment, diet, and implications for fisheries management. Ardea, 90(1): 23-41. [Abstract. Inland colonies of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Britain contain individuals of both European subspecies the Atlantic Great Cormorant P.c. carbo and the Continental Great Cormorant P.c. sinensis. Not only are the two breeding together, they are probably hybridising. Colony size and diet were studied in the three oldest and largest of these colonies: Abberton Reservoir, Little Paxton and Besthorpe. Abberton was founded in 1981 and increased steadily to 526 nests in 1993, thereafter numbers varied and averaged 464 nests per annum with a peak count of 551 in 1996. This colony, the largest inland one in Britain, is 7 km from the sea and breeding birds foraged mostly in estuarine habitat. Diet was diverse (at least 26 marine and freshwater fishes) but dominated by Eel Anguilla anguilla and flatfishes Pleuronectidae. Calculations suggest that breeding birds here consumed 70.3 tonnes of fish in 1993. Colony-size trajectories for the other two colonies were similar to Abberton but with maximum counts of around 200 pairs. Diet at these colonies, both > 60km from the coast, comprised exclusively freshwater fish, mostly cyprinids and particularly Roach Rutilus rutilus. Many of the English inland colonies seem to have formed as separate 'colonisation' events rather than following Van Eerden & Gregersen's (1995) mother-satellite colony formation model for the expansion of Continental Great Cormorants in mainland Europe. Presumably such events in Britain were, at least in part, facilitated because birds were already roosting in many different places, and by the large number of non-breeding birds of continental origin. We speculate on the implications of inland mixed sub-species Great Cormorant colonies in Britain for the future management of both Great Cormorants and fisheries.]

Childress R. B., Bennun L. A. & Harper D. M. 2002. Population changes in sympatric Great and Long-tailed Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo and P. africanus): the effects of niche overlap orenvironmental change? Hydrobiologia, 488: 163-170. [Abstract. Between January 1993 and January 1995, the number of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) using Lake Naivasha, Kenya (00° 45' S, 36° 20' E) for foraging and resting increased 56%, while the number of sympatric Long-tailed Cormorants (Phalacrocorax africanus) decreased 64%. In 1995 and 1996, we documented habitat changes and conducted monthly population and resource-use surveys of the two species in an attempt to discover the most likely reasons for these changes. The increase in Great Cormorants was probably the result of immigration from nearby Lake Nakuru due to extreme water level reductions there. Lake Naivasha also experienced falling water levels and transparency during this period, but these changes were not as severe and are not considered likely reasons for the decline in Long-tailed Cormorant numbers. Despite some probable dietary overlap, the two species were well separated in terms of foraging locations, foraging methods, resting habitats and breeding timing. The decline in Long-tailed Cormorant numbers may be connected with increased disturbance by fishermen along the lake littoral, this species' primary feeding location.]

Dezfuli B. S., Volponi S., Beltrami I. & Poulin R. 2002. Intra- and interspecific density-dependent effects on growth in helminth parasites of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Parasitology, 124: 537-544.

Eskildsen J. 2002. Skarver 2002. Naturovervĺgning. - Danmarks Miljřundersřgelser. - Arbejdsrapport fra DMU, nr. 172. [Abstract. The number of occupied nests of great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo was counted once in all breeding colonies in Denmark in 2002. The total number of nests in Denmark amounted to 40,540 in 2002, which was an increase of three percent compared with 2001.]

Evrad G. & Tarbe A-L. 2002. Etude du régime et de la sélectivité alimentaire du Gran Cormoran (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) hivernant en Haute-Meuse belge. Aves, 39: 159-178.

Frederiksen M., Bregnballe T., van Eerden M.R., van Rijn S. & J.-D. Lebreton (2002): Site fidelity of wintering cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in Europe. Wildlife Biology, 8, 241-250.

Govedic M. 2002. [The diet of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo on the upper Sava river in the winter of 1998/99.] Acrocephalus, 23(115): 169-178. [Abstract. The diet of Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo ,occurring on the upper Sava river,was studied in the second half of the winter 1998/99 by means of regurgitated pellets, collected at the Great Cormorants ’ night roost near Radovljica. Among 99 collected pellets, 73 contained remains of fish. In individual pellets,remains of 1 to 11 fish (median 2,average 2.8)were found. Altogether,remains of 204 fish were found.Length and weight were determined for 178 of them.The diet consisted of seven fish species (Grayling Thymallus thymallus ,Trout Salmo trutta, Chub Leuciscus cephalus, Perch Perca fluviatilis, Danube Roach Rutilus pigus virgo ,Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss ,and Roach Rutilus rutilus ).The diet was dominated by Grayling (51.0% by number, 64.3%by biomass and 69.9%by occurrence),Trout (21.1%by number,9.7%by biomass,and 34.3%by occurrence)and Chub (9.3%by number,14.4% by biomass, and 13.7% by occurrence).Prey size ranged from 3.7 cm (undetermined Cyprinidae)to 40.8 cm (Grayling)and mass from <1.0 g (undetermined Cyprinidae)to 714.9 g (Grayling).Most frequent length class was 15 -20 cm (33.1%).Average length of prey was 16.3 cm (median 16.3 cm).Average length of Grayling was 18.5 cm (median 18.2 cm,Q1 -Q3:15.0 -20.4 cm, min -max:4.5 -30.8 cm)and 12.8 cm of Trout (median 12.4 cm, Q1 -Q3:10 -14.9 cm,min -max:5.7 -22.4 cm).Significant differences between months in number of specimens of the three most important fish species were probably a consequence of different feeding areas.Grayling and Chub were assumed to be in a larger proportion in the Great Cormorant ’s diet than in the feeding habitat.]

Govedic M., Janzekovic F. & Kos I. 2002. [The diet of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo on the Sava river between Ljubljana and Zagorje (Slovenia).] Acrocephalus, 23(110-111): 5-20. [Abstract. Diet of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo occurring on the Sava river between Ljubljana and Zagorje was studied in the winter 1998/99 by means of regurgitated pellets,collected at the Cormorants ’night roost at Hotic. Among 473 collected pellets, 69.8 %contained remains of fish.The pellets also contained worms Nematoda and tapeworms Cestoda,remains of caddis flies Trichoptera,snails Gastropoda and a frog Rana sp.In separate pellets, remains of 1 to 69 fish (median 2, average 3.9) were found:in 41.8 % pellets remains of 1 fish, in 93.6 %remains of up to 10 fish. Altogether, remains of 1,288 fish were found.Length and weight were determined for 1,279 of them.Total weight of these fish was estimated at 57 kg. The diet consisted of 12 fish species (trout almo trutta ,grayling Thymallus thymallus, chub Leuciscus cephalus, nase Chondrostoma nasus, danube roach Rutilus pigus virgo ,roach Rutilus rutilus, barbel Barbus barbus ,bream Abramis brama, bleak Alburnus alburnus, pike Esox lucius, perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus ).The diet was dominated by Cyprinidae (85.8 %by number,90.5 %by biomass).Grayling and trout were represented with 6.5 %by number and 3.6 %by mass and pike, perch and ruffe in 7.3 %by number and 3.6 %by mass.Inside Cyprinidae chub with 16.4 %by number and 38.6 %by biomass and nase with 3.9 %by number and 16.5 %by biomass were most frequent.The proportion of undetermined Cyprinidae was 57.1 %by number and 28.5 %by mass.Prey size ranged from 23 to 345 mm.Most frequent length class was 70-170 mm (50 %by number and 19 %by mass),but large individuals (>170 mm)were most important (25.0% by number and 80.1 %by mass)in the diet of Great Cormorants.The numbers of specimens of Cyprinidae, Percidae and Salmonidae between months were significant,while the numbers of specimens of determined Cyprinids were not.We concluded that the differences in the investigated area depended more on random detection of fish.Chub and nase are species with shoaling habits, and were assumed that they were easier detectable by Great Cormorants than the non-shoaling species.]

L'vov D.K., Dzharkenov A.F., L'vov D.N., Aristova V.A., Kovtunov A.I., Gromashevskii V.L., Vyshemirskii O.I., Galkina I.V., Al'khovskii S.V., Samokhvalov E.I., Prilipov A.G., Deriabin P.G., Odolevskii E.I., Ibragimov R.M. 2002. [Isolation of the West Nile fever virus from the great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, the crow Corvus corone, and Hyalomma marginatum ticks associated with them in natural and synanthroic biocenosis in the Volga delta (Astrakhan region, 2001)] [Article in Russian]. Vopr Virusol. 2002 Sep-Oct;47(5):7-12. [Abstract. Four strains identified as West Nile fever virus by inhibited hemagglutination and neutralization tests, enzyme immunoassay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were isolated during a virological examination of birds and their collected ticks in the natural and synanthropic biocenoses of the Volga delta. The strains were isolated from the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), the crow (Corvus corone) and its collected Hyalomma marginatum nymphs. The types of interpopulational relations in the ecological system wild-birds-virus-mosquitoes-synanthroic birds-ticks are discussed.]

Zydelis R., G. Grazulevicius, J. Zarankaite, R. Mecionis & Maciulis M. 2002. Expansion of the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) population in western Lithuania. Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 12(3): 283-287.


Alessandria G., Carpegna G. & Della Toffola M. 2001. Il Cormorano nella regione Piemontese. Riv. Piem. St. Nat., 22: 261-280.

Barus V., F. Tenora, S. Krácmar & Prokes M. 2001. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Contracaecum rudolphii (Nematoda) and its host, the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (Aves). Folia Parasitologica, 48(3):

Engstrom H. 2001. Long term effects of cormorant predation on fish communities and fishery in a freshwater lake. Ecography, 24(2): 127-138.

Engstrom H. 2001. The occurrence of the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Sweden, with special emphasis on the recent population growth. Ornis Svecica, 11:155-170. 

Frantová D. 2001. Capillariid nematodes (Nematoda: Capillariidae) parasitic in the common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), with redescription of Baruscapillaria carbonis (Dubinin et Dubinina, 1940). Folia Parasitologica, 48(3): 225-230. [Abstract. Two species of the genus Baruscapillaria Moravec, 1982 are known to parasitise the small intestine of the common cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo (L.): Baruscapillaria carbonis (Dubinin et Dubinina, 1940) and B. rudolphii Moravec, Scholz et Nasincova, 1994. A redescription of the former species, based on specimens collected from common cormorants shot in South Bohemia, Czech Republic, is provided. Morphological features distinguishing B. carbonis and B. rudolphii are specified. B. carbonis is characterised mainly by the well-developed membranous bursa in the male, composed of five distinct lobes (four lateral and one spur-shaped dorsal); the length of the spicule is 1.9-2.3 mm; gravid females are provided with a long vulvar appendage. Males of B. rudolphii have reduced, bi-lobed membranous bursa and the spicule is 0.9-1.3 mm long; the vulvar appendage is absent in gravid females. This is the first record of B. carbon is in the Czech Republic.]

Frederiksen M. & Bregnballe T. 2001. Conspecific reproductive success affects age of recruitment in a great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis colony. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Series B Biological Sciences, 268: 1519-1526.

Frederiksen M., Lebreton J.-D. & Bregnballe T. 2001. The interplay between culling and density-dependence in the great cormorant: a modelling approach. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38: 617-627.

Grémillet D. S. Wanless, D.N. Carss, D. Linton., M.P. Harris, J.R. Speakman & Le Maho Y. 2000. Foraging energetics of arctic cormorants and the evolution of diving birds. Ecology letters, 4: 180-184.

Iseki N., Masunaga S. & Nakanishi J. 2001. Comparison Residue Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Coplanar PCBs in Eggs of Common Cormorants, Phalacrocorax carbo Collected from Two Colonies of Japan. Journal Japan Society on Water Environment, 24(7): 447-453.

Johansen R., Barrett R.T. & Pedersen T. 2001. Foraging strategies of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo carbo wintering north of the arctic circle. BIRD STUDY, 48: 59-67.

Kato A., Watanuk Y. & Naito Y. 2001. Foraging and breeding performance of Japanese cormorants in relation to prey type. Ecol. Research 16: 745 - 758. [Abstract. Seabirds are high trophic predators in marine ecosystems and are sensitive to change in food supply and thus seabirds can be used as monitors of the marine environment. In order to study the foraging responses of Japanese cormorants Phalacrocorax filamentosus breeding at Teuri Island, Hokkaido to changes in fish availability, the diet was assessed from the regurgitations of parents and chicks, and diving behavior was measured by using time-depth recorders. Breeding performance (brood size, chick growth, breeding success) was monitored using conventional methods to study their breeding responses. Japanese cormorants changed the diet and foraging behavior over four summers. The birds fed mainly on epipelagic schooling fish when they were available and on demersal fish when pelagic fish availability was low. They tended to dive deeper and longer in a year when they fed mainly on demersal fish than the other years, reflecting the change in the depth distribution of prey fish. Chick growth rate did not differ among years, but fledging success was lower in the years of demersal fish as their meal delivery rate was low. When epipelagic schooling fish were considered scare, parents maintained chick growth by reducing brood size. High variability and unpredictability in pelagic fish abundance are key factors affecting the foraging and breeding performance of Japanese cormorants, which could potentially be used to monitor fish resources.]

Otel V. & Kiss J.B. 2001. Data concerning the food components of the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in the Danube Delta, colony Martinca. Scientific Annals of the Danube Institute for Research and Develpment, Tulcea, Romania, vol. 2001: 186-191.

Saulamo K., Andersson J. & Thoresson G. 2001. Skarv och fisk vid svenska Östersjökusten. Fiskeriverket informerar 2001:7 (1-21). [Abstract.The abundance of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased rapidly in Europe during the last decade. In Sweden, the number of nesting pairs was 15,400 in 1998. The core-area of the Swedish cormorant populations is in the Kalmar sound area, where the number of breeding pairs in the largest colony (Svartö) was about 3,000 in 1998. The increasing number of cormorants has led to conflicts between different user-groups, mainly fishermen and conservationists. The abundance of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased rapidly in Europe during the last decade. In Sweden, the number of nesting pairs was 15 400 in 1998. The core-area of the Swedish cormorant population is in the Kalmar sound area, where the number of breeding pairs in the largest colony (Svartö) was about 3 000 in 1998. The increasing number of cormorants has led to conflicts between different usergroups, mainly fishermen and conservationists. Possible effects of cormorant predation on fish populations were studied with a model based on published data from studies of cormorant diet and fish monitoring performed in three different coastal areas, including Kalmar sound. Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), which is an important prey object for cormorants in the area, was used as model species. It was shown that high mortality of 4-5 year old perch in the Kalmar sound area could be related to cormorant predation. With a total daily consumption of 600 grams of fish, constituting 20-30% of perch averaging 22.5 cm length, estimated mortalities from testfishing and from the model showed best fit. At such predation pressure mortality overrides the production of perch, and may result in a significant reduction of the perchstock. Also effects on eel (Anquilla anquilla L.) were studied using Catch Per Unit Effort and length data from five different areas. The CPUE's were lower in areas close the cormorant colonies. ]

Schjřrring S. 2001: Ecologically determined natal philopatry within a colony of great cormorants. Behavioural Ecology, 12: 287-294.

Surai P. F., Bortolotti G. R., Fidgett A. L., Blount J. D. & Speake B. K. 2001. Effects of piscivory on the fatty acid profiles and antioxidants of avian yolk: studies on eggs of the gannet, skua, pelican and cormorant. Journal of Zoology, 255(3): 305-312.

Volponi S. 2001. Il piano sperimentale per la riduzione dell'impatto di predazione indotto dai cormorano svernanti nel Delta del Po veneto. Boll. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Venezia, suppl. vol. 51(2000): 52-61. [Abstract - Full text .pdf (in Italian with English abstract)].

Winney B. J., Litton C. D., Parkin D. T. & Feare C. J. 2001. The subspecific origin of the inland breeding colonies of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Britain. Heredity, 86(1): 45-53. [Ref. 2001-7]


Allchin C. R., Morris S., Bennett M., Law R. J. & Russell I. 2000. P177 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Residues in Cormorant (Phalocrocorax carbo L.) Livers from England, UK. Organohalogen Compounds, 47: 190-193.

Aurigi S., Focardi S., Hulea D. & Renzoni A. 2000. Organochlorine contamination in bird's eggs from the Danube Delta. Environmental Pollution, 109(1): 61-67. [Ref. 2000-12]

Boschert M., Mahler U. & Schuster S. 2000. [Breeding distribution and population size of the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg].Ornithologische Jahreshefte für Baden-Württemberg, 16: 1-6. (In German, English summary).

Bregnballe T. & Rasmussen T. 2000. Post-breeding dispersal of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis from Danish breeding colonies. Dansk Ornitologisk Forenings Tidsskrift, 94: 175-187.

Budworth, D., M. Canham, H. Clark, B. Hughes & Sellers R. M . 2000. Status, productivity, movements, and mortality of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo breeding in Caithness, Scotland: a study of a declining population. Atlantic Seabirds, 2: 165-180.

 Konstantinou K., Goutner V. & Albanis T. A. 2000. The incidence of polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide residues in the eggs of the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis): an evaluation of the situation in four Greek wetlands of international importance. The Science of The Total Environment, 257: 61-79. [Abstract. This study contributed to identifying the current levels of organochlorine pollutants in four Greek wetlands of international importance (the Evros and Axios Deltas, and Kerkini and Prespa Lakes), using the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis as a suitable bioindicator in a region where such information is scarce. Residue levels of eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 13 organochlorine pesticide (OC) compounds were measured in cormorant eggs. Most PCBs and OCs (except dieldrin and endrin) were found in at least some of the study areas. Median concentrations of five PCBs (IUPAC 8, 20, 52, 138, 180) and of six OCs (alfa-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane, heptachlor, 4,4'-DDE and 4,4'-DDT) differed significantly among the areas. The median totals of the PCBs were highly significant among the areas, being unexpectedly highest in Prespa Lake (68.43 ppb), despite its remoteness, and lowest in Evros Delta samples (12.17 ppb). Aldrin that was found in samples from Evros, Axios and Prespa probably accumulated in wintering grounds. In all of the areas, the relative proportions of alfa-BHC and 2,4'-DDD were the highest of all OCs. Fingerprint and cluster analyses illustrated overall differences in the PCB patterns, being greatest between the deltas than between the lakes, but, inversely, for OCs the differences were smaller in the deltas. Differences were attributed to large variations in the cormorants’ diet between areas and different regimes of pollutant management in the two types of wetland. Correlations of pollutants varied considerably among areas and they were more diverse in OCs. The ?OCs/?PCBs ratio indicates agrochemical pollution in all areas. An important finding was that levels of both pollutant groups were too low to have any biological implications on the cormorants and, additionally, suggest that they have a negligible impact on the environment of the wetlands studied.]

 Dawson A. 2000. Mechanisms of endocrine disruption with particular reference to occurrencein avian wildlife: A review. Ecotoxicology, 9(1-2): 59-69. [Ref. 2000-5]

Debout G. 2000. Les conséquences de la nidification du Grand Cormoran Phalacrocorax carbo sur celle du Cormoran huppé Phalacrocorax aristotelis. Alauda, 68 (1): 1-9.

 Frederiksen M. & Bregnballe T. 2000. Evidence for density-dependent survival in adult cormroants from a combined analisys of recoveries and resightings. Journal of Animal Ecology, 69: 737-752.

 Frederiksen M. & Bregnballe T. 2000. Diagnosing a decline in return rate of 1-year-old cormorants: mortality, emigration or delayed return ? Journal of Animal Ecology, 69: 753-761.

Govedic M. 2001. [Diets of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) in region of Sava river between Ljubljana and Zagorje (Slovenia)]. Graduation Thesis, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. (In Slovenian, English abstract). [Ref. 2001-3]

Grémillet D. & Wanless S. 2000. Cormorants need fast food. NERC News, Autumn: 4-5.

Hatch J.J., K. M. Brown, G. G. Hogan & Morris R.D. 2000. Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). In: The Birds of North America, No. 44 (A. Poole & F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Higuchi T., J. Hirokawa & Shinjo H. 2000. [The first record of a flock of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Hokkaido {Japan}.] Strix 18: 149--152. (Dept. Gen. Educ., Health Sci., Univ. Hokkaido, Kanazawa 1757, Tobetsu-cho, Ishikari-gun, Hokkaido 061-0293, Japan.) (Japanese, Engl. summ.).

Hirano T. et al. 2000. [The distribution and abundance of Great Cormorants in Tochigi Prefecture [Japan].] Strix 18: 29--43. (Wild Bird Soc. Japan, Tochigi Chapter, Hanawada 2-5-1, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 320-0027, Japan.) --- Population increase of Phalacrocorax carbo. (Japanese, Engl. summ.).

Hughes B, J. Bruce, G. R. Ekins & Newson S. 2000. Movements and distribution of inland breeding Cormorants in England. English Nature Research Report No 360. [rif. 2000-9]

Gremillet D., Storch S. & Peters G. 2000. Determining food requirements in marine top predators: a comparison of three independent techniques in Great Cormorants, Phalacrocorax carbo carbo. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY - REVUE CANADIENNE DE ZOOLOGIE, 78(9): 1567-1579. [rif. 2000-14]

Guruge K.S., Tanabe S. & Fukuda M. 2000. Toxic Assessment of PCBs by the 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin Equivalent in Common Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Japan. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 38(4): 509.

Ishida A., et al. 2000. [The population increase of the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and its damaging effect on fisheries and trees in Japan---the present situation, the problems in each area and future measures.] Strix, 18: 1-27. (Aichi For. Inst., Hourai, Minamishitara, Aichi 441-1622, Japan.) --- Describe damage to fisheries and forestry industries and suggest future measures with reference to cases in other countries. (Japanese, Engl. summ.) ---

Konstantinou I. K., Goutner V. & Albanis T. A. 2000. The incidence of polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide residues in the eggs of the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis): an evaluation of the situation in four Greek wetlands of international importance. The Science of the Total Environment, 257(1): 61-79. [Abstract. This study contributed to identifying the current levels of organochlorine pollutants in four Greek wetlands of international importance (the Evros and Axios Deltas, and Kerkini and Prespa Lakes), using the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis as a suitable bioindicator in a region where such information is scarce. Residue levels of eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 13 organochlorine pesticide (OC) compounds were measured in cormorant eggs. Most PCBs and OCs (except dieldrin and endrin) were found in at least some of the study areas. Median concentrations of five PCBs (IUPAC 8, 20, 52, 138, 180) and of six OCs (alfa-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane, heptachlor, 4,4'-DDE and 4,4'-DDT) differed significantly among the areas. The median totals of the PCBs were highly significant among the areas, being unexpectedly highest in Prespa Lake (68.43 ppb), despite its remoteness, and lowest in Evros Delta samples (12.17 ppb). Aldrin that was found in samples from Evros, Axios and Prespa probably accumulated in wintering grounds. In all of the areas, the relative proportions of alfa-BHC and 2,4'-DDD were the highest of all OCs. Fingerprint and cluster analyses illustrated overall differences in the PCB patterns, being greatest between the deltas than between the lakes, but, inversely, for OCs the differences were smaller in the deltas. Differences were attributed to large variations in the cormorants’ diet between areas and different regimes of pollutant management in the two types of wetland. Correlations of pollutants varied considerably among areas and they were more diverse in OCs. The ?OCs/?PCBs ratio indicates agrochemical pollution in all areas. An important finding was that levels of both pollutant groups were too low to have any biological implications on the cormorants and, additionally, suggest that they have a negligible impact on the environment of the wetlands studied. ]

Lekuona J. M. & Campos F. 2000. Site fidelity of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo wintering in southern France and northern Spain. Ringing and Migration, 20(2): 181-185.

Newson S.E. 2000. Colonisation and range expansion of inland breeding great cormorants Phalacrocrax carbo in England. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bristol.

Roper P, Rutherford B., Wilson M., Rasch S. & Brerton T. 2000. Great cormorants exploiting fish concentration caused by heavy rain. British Birds, 93(1): 39.

 Schjorring S., J. Gregersen & Bregnballe T. 2000. Sex difference in criteria determining fidelity towards breeding sites in the great cormorant. Journal of Animal Ecology, 69: 214-223. [rif. 2000-1]

 Saeki, K., Y. Okabe, E.­Y. Kim, S. Tanabe, M. Fukuda and R. Tatsukawa, 2000. Mercury and cadmium in common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo). Environmental Pollution, 108(2): 249­255. [rif. 2000-2]

Stempniewicz L., Goc M., Bzoma S., Nitecki C. & Iliszko L. 2000. Can timing and synchronisation of breeding affect chick mortality in the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo? Acta Ornithologica, 35: 33-39. [Abstract. In 1996, following a relatively severe and prolonged winter, Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis started to breed at the Katy Rybackie colony (NE Poland) one month later than in 1995 but breeding finished at the same time in both years. The estimated total food consumption of the Cormorants was lower during the shorter and more synchronised 1996 breeding season (737 tonnes) than in 1995 (805 tonnes) despite the larger population present in 1996 (5929 pairs) than in 1995 (4942). However, during the period of peak energy need in June the estimated total daily food consumption of Cormorants present in the colony was about 2 tonnes higher in 1996. In June 1996, after a couple of windy days, 24.3% of chicks died and the total fledging success was lower (2.19 fledglings/nest) than in 1995 (2.45). The observed mass chick mortality could be due to the combined effect of strong breeding synchronisation, decreased food availability, and increased costs of foraging due to strong winds. Large breeding colonies of Cormorants can only function successfully when the suitable breeding period is prolonged and breeding can start early. Long-term climate change due to global warming could have favoured the observed Cormorant population increase during the last decades and its expansion into NE Europe. Asynchrony could be adaptive towards alleviating the food requirements of both individual broods and the whole colony.]

van den Berg A. B., van Loon A.J & McGeehan A. 2000. Aalscholver met kenmerken van Grote Aalscholver to Hees in februari 2000 [Great Cormorant showing characters of Atlantic Great cormorant at Heel in February 2000]. Dutch birding, 22(1): 21-


Bearhop S., D. R. Thompson, S. Waldron, I. C. Russell, G. Alexander & Furness R. W. 1999. Stable isotopes indicate extent of freshwater feeding by cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo shot at inland fisheries in England. J. Appl. Ecol., 36: 75-84.

Bregnballe T. 1999. Seasonal and geographical variation in net-entrapment of Danish Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Dansk Ornitologisk Forenings Tidsskrift, 93: 247-254.

Camphuysen C. J. 1999. New feeding technique of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis at beam trawlers. Atlantic Seabirds, 1: 85-90.

Carss D.N. & Marquiss N. 1999. Fish eating birds and fisheries. Scotish Bird News. 55:6-7.

Carss D.N. & Marquiss N. 1999. Skeletons in the cupboard? Quantifying bird predation on Atlantic salmon: atlas vertebra:fish length equations revisited. Journal of Zoology, 248: 272-276. --- Throughout Europe there is considerable concern about the potential impact of sawbill ducks Mergus spp. and great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo on catches of commercial fish (reviews by Marquiss & Carss, 1994; Russell et al., 1996). A prerequisite to estimating impact is to quantify the consumption of commercially important fish by birds. This requires site-specific data on (1) bird numbers, (2) their daily food intake and (3) diet. Considerable effort has been directed at quantifying (2) and (3) and exploring the biases associated with different methods (see Carss et al., 1997 for review). ---

Grémillet D., Wanless S., Krause M. & Jensen J. 1999. Great Cormorants diving in cold water: the tricks of the trade. Comp. Physiol. & Biochem., 124A: 22

 Grémillet D. & Wilson R. P. 1999. A life in the fast lane: energetics and foraging strategies of the great cormorant. Behavioral Ecology, 10(5): 516-524. [rif. 1999-3]

 Grémillet D., R. P. Wilson, S. Storch & Gary Y. 1999. Three-dimensional space utilization by a marine predator. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 183: 263-273. [rif. 1999-2]

 Grémillet D., R. P. Wilson, Wanless S. Peters G. 1999. A tropical bird in the Arctic (the cormorant paradox). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 188: 305-309. [rif. 1999-4]

 Grieco F. 1999. Nest-site limitations and colony development in tree-nesting Great Cormorants. Waterbirds, 22(3): 417-423.

Johansen R., T. Petersen & Barrett R. 1999. Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo carbo as predators in a cod Gadus morhua enhancement area in North Norway. Pp. 334-349. In: Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching (B. Howell, E. Mokness & Svĺsand T., eds.). Fishing News Books, Oxford, England.

Keller T. 1999. Wiring and exclosure systems as tools to reduce cormorant depredations at fish farms. pp. 239-249. in D.P. Cowand and C.J. Feare [eds.] Advances in vertebrate pest management. Filander Verlag, Fürth.

 Keller T. M. & Visser G. H. 1999. Daily energy expenditure of great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis wintering at Lake Chiemsee, Southern Germany. Ardea, 87(1), pp. 61.

Lekuona J. M. 1999. Effects of the fishing strategy, the relative position and the size of fishing groups on the foraging success of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo during winter. Ardeola 46 (1): 13--21. (Virgen del Puy, 5, 7.-D, E-31011, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain; EM: nd10313@autovia.com).

Nagasawa K., Barus V., Tenora F., Prokes M. & Oka N. 1999. Validity and redescription of Contracaceum himeu (Nematoda, Anisakidae), a parasite of cormorants in Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Ser. A Zoology, 25 (3): 149-161.

Narusue M., T. Matsuzawa, N. Kato & Fukui K.. 1999. [Questionnaire survey on possible relations between Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo and fishery damage in inland waters.] Strix 17: 133--145. (Res. Ctr., Wild Bird Soc. Japan, 2-35-2 Minamidaira, Hino, Tokyo 191-0041, Japan.) (Japanese, Engl. summary).

Okadome T. & Sasahara M. 1999. Five dipterous flies bred from Japanese cormorant feces in Japan. Eisei dobutsu, 50(4): 341

Rehfisch M. M., Wernham C. V. & Marchant J. H. 1999. Population, distribution, movements and survival of fish-eating birds in Great Britain. DETR & BTO.

Schjřrring S., Gregersen J. & Bregnballe T. 1999. Prospecting enhances breeding success of first-time breeders in the Great Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Animal Behaviour, 57: 647-654.

Semenzato M. & Tiloca G. 1999. Prima nidificazione di Cormorano (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in Veneto e aggiornamenti sugli uccelli nidificanti nelal garzaia di Valle Figheri (Laguna di Venezia). Lavori Societŕ Ven. Scienze Naturali, 24: 129-130.

Stumberger B. 1997. Monitoring velikih kormoranov Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis v SV Sloveniji. [Monitoring of the cormorant Phalacrcorax carbo sinensis in NE Slovenia]. DOPPS - BirdLife International Slovenia.

Storch S., Grémillet D. & Culik B. M. 1999. The telltale heart: a non-invasive method to determine the energy expenditure of incubating Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo. Ardea, 87(2): 207-215

Troillet B. 1999. Répartition et effectifs du Grand Cormoran (Phalacrocorax carbo) en Europe. [Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) distribution and numbers in Europe]. Gibier Faune Sauvage, 16: 177-223. (In French with English and German summaries).

 Volponi S. 1999. Reproduction of a Newly-established Population of the Great Cormorant in North-eastern Italy. Waterbirds, 22(2): 263-273. [rif. 1999-1; summary - .pdf]

 Wernham C.V. & Peach W.J. 1999. Use of ring recoveries to monitor long-term changes in the survival rates of British and Irish cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo. Bird Study, 46(Suppl.): S189-S197.


Bildsře M., I.B. Jensen & Vestergaard K.S. 1998. Foraging behaviour of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in pound nets in Denmark: the use of barrel nets to reduce predation. Wildlife Biology, 4: 129-136.

Bzoma S. 1998. The contribution of round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1811) to the food supply of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo Linnaeus, 1758) feeding in the Puck Bay. Bulletin Sea Fisheries Institute, 144(2): 39-47.

Callaghan D.A., Kirby J.S., Bell M.C. & Spray C.J. 1998. Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo occupancy and impact at stillwater game fisheries in England and Wales. Bird Study, 45: 1-17.

Engström H. 1998. Conflicts between Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo L. and fishery in Sweden. Nord. J. of Freshw. Res. 74: 1148 - 155.

 Goostrey A., D.N. Carss, L. R. Noble & Piertney S. B. 1998. Population introgression and differentiation in the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Europe. Molecular Ecology, 7(3): 329-338.

Grémillet D. & Argentin G. 1998. Cormorants, Shags and fisheries in the Chausey Islands area. Le Cormoran, 10 : 196-202.

Grémillet D., G. Argentin, B. Schulte & Culik B. M. 1998. Flexible foraging techniques in breeding cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo and shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis: benthic or pelagic feeding? Ibis, 140: 113-119.

Grémillet D. & Debout G. 1999. Exploitation du milieu par deux espčces sympatriques de cormorans. Le Cormoran, 10: 167-168.

Grémillet D., L. Tuschy & Kierspel M. 1998. Body temperature and insulation in diving Great Cormorants and European Shags. Funct. Ecol, 12: 386-394.

Grémillet D. & Wilson R. P. 1998. A remote-controlled net trap for ground-breeding seabirds. Seabird, 20 : 44-47.

Grzegorz Kopij. 1998. Diet of Whitebreasted Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo nestlings in the south-eastern Free State, South Africa. South African journal of wildlife research, 28(3): 100.

Kato Akiko, Watanuki Yutaka & Naito Yasuhiko. 1998. Benthic and pelagic foraging of two Japanese cormorants, determined by simultaneous recording of location and diving activity. J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol., 30(2): 101-108. [English, summ. Jap.].

Keller T. 1998. The food of Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in Bavaria. Journal Ornithologie, 139(4): 389-400.

Kopij G. 1998. Diet of Whitebreasted cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo nestlings in the south-eastern Free-State, South-Africa. South African Journal Wildlife Research, 28(3): 100-102.

Leukona J. M. 1998. Impact of Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus and Grey Heron Ardea cinerea on a fish farm in Navarra [Spain] during the winter season. Ardeola, 45(2): 171-182. (c/o Virgen de Puy, 5, 7D, E-31011 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain; EM: nd10313@autovia.com)

Lekuona J. M. & Campos F. 1998. Wintering distribution of day roosts, night roosts and feeding areas of Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis(Depto. Zool. Ecol., Fac. Cienc., Univ. ) in rivers from Navarra [Spain]. Misc. Zool., 21(1): 61-74. Navarra, E-31080 Pamplona, Spain).

 Leopold M. F., Van Damme C. J. G & Vanderveer H. W. 1998. Diet of cormorants and the impact of cormorant predation on juvenile flatfish in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Journal of Sea Research, 40(1-2): pp. 93.

 Piertney S. B., Goostrey A., Dallas J. F. & Carss D. N. 1998. Highly polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo. Molecular Ecology, 7(1): 138-140.

Stempniewicz L., M. Goc & Nitecki Cz . 1998. [The need to conduct ecological studies on the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Poland.] Notatki Ornitol. 39: 33--46. (Katedra Ekologii Kręgowców UG., Legionów 9, 80-441 Gdańsk, Poland.) --- Extensive studies of limiting factors and bird impact on fisheries necessary. (Polish, Engl. summary). ---

Volponi S. & Rossi R. 1998. Predazione degli uccelli ittiofagi in acquacoltura estensiva: valutazione dell'impatto e sperimentazione di mezzi di dissuasione incruenta. Biologia Marina Mediterranea, 5(3): 1375-1384. (Italian, Engl. summary). [Ref. 1998-3].

 Wlasow T., Gomulka P., Martyniak A., Boron S., Hliwa P., Terlecki J. & Szymanska U. 1998. Anguillicola crassus larvae in cormorants prey fish In Vistula Lagoon, Poland. Bulletin Francais de la pčche et de la pisciculture, (349): pp. 223.


Addis P. & Cau A. 1997. Impact of the feeding habits of the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis on the lagoon fish-stocks in central-western Sardinia. Avocetta, 21: 180-187.

Ancel A., M. Horning & Kooyman G. L. 1997. Prey ingestion revealed by esophagus and stomach temperature recordings in Cormorants. Journal Experimental Biology, 200(1): 149-154.

Asbirk S. 1997. Management plan for cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Denmark. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 271-272.

Baccetti N. 1997. Recent development of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo population in Italy. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 9-10.

Baccetti N. & G. Cherubini (Eds.). 1997. 4th EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON CORMORANTS.Supplemento Ricerche Biologia Selvaggina, vol. XXVI, pp. 591

Batty R. E. & Forbes L. 1997. Grey Heron exploiting behaviour of Great Cormorant, and attempting to rob it. Br. Birds 90: 122.

Baumanis J., U. Bergmanis & V. Smislov. 1997. Breeding status of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Latvia. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 11-14.

Beccaria A. 1997. [The Cormorant's diet (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis Blumenbach, 1798) and its impact on the ichthyocommunity.] Riv. Piem. St. Nat. 18: 241--247. (Via Ortigara 7-12048 Mondovi (CN), Italy.) ---Pellet analysis from 3 winters. (Italian, Engl. summ.)---

Bianki V., N. Boiko & V. Kokhanov. 1997. The cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Kandalaksha Bay (White Sea, Russia). Ekologia polska, 45(1): 15-16.

Boertmann D. & Mosbech A. 1997. Breeding distribution and abundance of the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo carbo in Greenland. Polar Research, 16: 93-100.

Boldreghini P., R. Santolini & Pandolfi M. 1997. Abundance and frequency of occurrence of prey-fish in the diet of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in the Po river delta (northern Italy) during the wintering period. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 191-196.

Boldreghini P., R. Santolini, S. Volponi, L. Casini, F. L. Montanari & Tinarelli R. 1997. Variations in the use of foraging areas by a cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo wintering population: a case study in the Po Delta (northern Italy). Ekologia polska, 45(1): 197-200.

Boldreghini P., S. Volponi, R. Santolini, G. Cherubini & P. Utmar. 1997. Recent trend of cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo population wintering in the northern Adriatic (Italy). Ekologia polska, 45(1): 17-22

Boudewijn T. J. & S. Dirksen. 1997. Improved breeding success of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in a severely contaminated area in The Netherlands by a shift in food composition. 1997.a progress report. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 201-206.

Bregnballe T. & Gregersen J. 1997. Age-related reproductive success in cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 127-136.

Bregnballe T. & J. Gregersen. 1997. Development of the breeding population of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Denmark up to 1993. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 23-30

Bregnballe T., Frederiksen M. & Gregersen J. 1997. Seasonal distribution and timing of migration of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis breeding in Denmark. Bird Study 44: 257-276. (Natl. Environ. Res. Inst., Dept. Coastal Zone Ecol., Grenavej 12, DK-8410 Ronde, Denmark). --- Majority spend winter in Mediterranean France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Algeria and especially Tunisia. Adults winter farther north than 1st-years and males stay nearer breeding areas than females.---

Bregnballe T., Goss-Custard J.D. & Le V. Dit Durell S.E.A. 1997. Management of cormorant numbers in Europe: a second step towards a European conservation and management plan. Pp. 62-122 In: Cormorants and human interests: proceedings of the workshop towards an international conservation and management plan for the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), 3 and 4 October, Lelystad, The Netherlands (van Dam C. & Asbirk S., Eds.).

Carpegna M., Grussu M. Grieco F., Veronesi E. & Volponi S. 1997. The Italian breeding population of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo. Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina, XXVI:81-87.

Carss D. N.& M. Marquiss. 1997. The diet of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Scottish freshwaters in relation to feeding habitats and fisheries. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 207-

Carss D.N., Bevan R.M., Bonetti A., Cherubini G., Davies J., Doherty D., El Hilli A., Feltham M.J., Grade N., Granadeiro J.P., Grémillet D., Gromadzka J., Harari Y.N.R.A., Holden T., Keller T., Lariccia G., Mantovani R., McCarthy T.M., Mellin M., Menke T., Mirowska-Ibron I., Muller W., Musil P., Nazirides T., Suter W., Trauttmansdorff J.F.G., Volponi S. & Wilson B. 1997. Techniques for assessing cormorant diet & food intake: towards a consensus view. Proc. IV European Cormorant Conference, Bologna. Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina, XXVI: 197-230.

Cherubini G., N. Baccetti & M. Bon. 1997. Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo wintering in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 31-38.

Costa L. T. & J. P. Granadeiro. 1997. The cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Portugal. 39-42

Danko S. 1997. [Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) at the Senné-ponds National Nature Reserve and the adjacent Inacovce-Senné ponds area {Slovakia}.] Tichodroma, 10: 7-35. (Zemplínske múzeum, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovakia.) --- A large population increase in recent years is threatening the livelihood of fishermen. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)

Davies J. M.& M. J. Feltham. 1997. Investigation into the impacts of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo carbo on angling catches on a river system. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 273-278.

Debout G. 1997. Coastal breeding cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in France: demography from 1988, site features, subspecies problem. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 43-49.

Devos K. & P. Ulenaers. 1997. Increase of wintering and migrating cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Flanders, Belgium. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 49-51.

Dirksen S. & Boudewijn T. J. 1997. Effects of organochlorine contaminants on cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in The Netherlands: a review of field and laboratory ecotoxicological research on reduced reproductive success. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 137-138.

Dirksen S., T.J. Boudewijn, R. Noordhuis & Marteijn E.C.L. 1997. Cormorants Palacrocorax carbo sinensis in shallow eutrophic freshwater lakes: prey choice and fish consumption in the non-breeding period and effects of large-scale fish removal. Ardea 85: 167-184.

Dobrowolski K. A.& R. Dejtrowski. 1997. Conflict between fishermen and cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Poland. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 279-284.

Dornbusch G. 1997. The cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Saxe - Anhalt, Germany. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 51-52.

Ekins G.R. 1997. The origins of ringed cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo at Abberton Reservoir, Essex, England. Ekologia Polska 45:139-151.

Ericson P. G. P. & Carrasquilla F. H. 1997. Subspecific identity of prehistoric Baltic Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo. Ardea, 85: 1-7. (Swedish Mus. Nat. Hist., P.O. Box 50007, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden). --- Subspecies sinensis breeds in Baltic, but only subspecies carbo known from prehistory.---

Fabczak J., J. Szarek, K. Markiewicz, S. Smoczyfiski & Skibniewska K. 1997. Preliminary results of studies on pathology of the liver of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo from north-eastern Poland. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 153-

Falandysz J., Strandberg B. & Rappe C. 1997. Concentrations and biomagnification of polychlorinated naphthalenes in black cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis from the Gulf of Gdansk, Baltic Sea. Science of the total environment, 204(1): 97.

Flore B.-O. & Hueppop O . 1997. [Numbers, migration and origin of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo at a wintering site on the island of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea).] J. Ornithol., 138: 253--270. (Inst. f. Vogelforschung "Vogelwarte Helgoland", Postfach 1220, D--27494 Helgoland, Germany.) --- Increased 47% per year from 1984-9; earlier arrival may be result of increasing competition in the Skagerrak and Kattegat. (German, English summ.) ---

Fukuda M. 1997. Relationships between an establish Great Cormorant colony and a small sub­colony. Bull. JBBA 12:31­38 (Japanese with English summary).

Gogu-Bogdan M. & Marinov M. 1997. Breeding and wintering of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in the Romanian part of the Danube Delta. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 57-62

Gorski W. & Pajkert Z. 1997. Interactions between cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo and herring gulls Larus argentatus in their common breeding sites. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 161-164.

Gregersen J. 1997. Monitoring of Danish cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo based on colour ringing. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 165-166

Grémillet D. 1997. Stomach temperature probes in cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo: a measurement of the daily food intake in free-living individuals. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 233-236.

Grémillet D. 1997. Catch per unit effort, foraging efficiency and parental investment in breeding Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo carbo). ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54: 635-644

Gromadzka J. & M. Gromadzki. 1997. Damage made by cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Europe: preliminary summary of questionnaire answers. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 285-286.

Guruge K. S. & Tanabe S. 1997. Congener specific accumulation and toxic assessment of polychlorinated biphemyls in Common Cormroants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Lake Biwa, Japan. Environmental Pollution, 96: 425-433.

Guruge K. S., S. Tanabe, M. Fukuda, S. Yamagishi & Tatsukawa R. 1997. Accumulation pattern of persistent organochlorine residues in Common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Japan. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34(3): 186-193.

Ishida A. 1997. Effects of inhabitation of the common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo Kuroda) on forest ecosystem­a basic study for conservation and management of the habitat. Nagoya University Forest Science 16: 75­119. (Japanese with English summary).

Ishida A. 1997. Seed germination and seedling survival in the colony of the common cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo. Ecological Research 12: 249­256.

Ivanov B., T. Michev, D. Nankinov, V. Pomakov, L. Profirov. 1997. Breeding and wintering status of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Bulgaria. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 63-68.

Jusys V. 1997. The cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in western Lithuania. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 69-70.

Keller T. 1997. Food of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo wintering in Bavaria (southern Germany). Ekologia polska, 45(1): 237-238.

Kershaw M. & Hughes B. 1997. Trends in the numbers of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo, Goosanders Mergus merganser, and Red-breasted mergansers M. serrator wintering in the UK. Unpublished WWT report to the British Trust for Ornithology.

Kieckbusch J. J. & Koop B. 1997. Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and fishery in Schleswig-Ho]stein, Germany. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 287-294.

Kirby J. S. & Sellers R. M. 1997. Recent trends in the numbers and distribution of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Britain. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 71-76

Kirby J. S., J. Holmes & R. M. Sellers. 1997. Conservation and management of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Great Britain: the current situation. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 295-302.

Koffijberg K. & van Eerden M. R. 1997. Discriminating sexes in the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 167-168.

Korzyukov A. I. 1997. Seasonal distribution of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in the north-western part of the Black Sea region. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 169-170.

Koshelev A. I. 1997. Methods and efficiency of scaring and regulation of cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo numbers in southern Ukraine. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 303-304.

Kozakiewicz M., W. Meissner & Skakuj M. 1997. Occurrence of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis at the Gulf of Gdansk (Poland) in the non breeding season. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 171-172

Lekuona J. M. & Campos F. 1997. Foraging strategies of the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in the Ebro River [Spain]. Misc. Zool., 20 (1):1-8.

Lilleleht V. 1997. Some facts about the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Estonia. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 77-78.

Lindell L. 1997. Recent population development of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Sweden. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 79-82.

Marion L. 1997. Increase of the number of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo wintering in France and the change of conservation status of the species. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 83-92.

Martucci O. 1997. Winter food habits of cormorants Phalacracorar carbo in central Italy: some remarks. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 239-244.

Martyniak A., M. Mellin, P. Stachowiak, A. Wittke. 1997. Food composition of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in two colonies in north-eastern Poland. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 245-246.

Mellin M. & I. Mirowska-Ibron. 1997. Results of cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo control in north-eastern Poland in 1987. 1997.1992. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 305-308.

Mellin M., I. Mirowska-Ibron, A. Martyniak. 1997. Food composition of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo shot at two fish farms in north-eastern Poland. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 247-249

Menke T. 1997. Development of the breeding population of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in West Germany in the last decade (1980. 1997.1992). Ekologia polska, 45(1): 93-96.

Musil P. & J. Janda. 1997. Habitat selection by the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo on south Bohemian fishponds. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 173-180.

Musil P.& Janda J. 1997. Population development of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Czech and Slovak Republics. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 97-104.

Newson, S.E., Hughes, B. & Sellers, R.M. 1997 . Status and Breeding Success of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Wales in 1997. CCW Sea Empress Contract Report No. 288. CCW, Bangor.

Narusue, M., et al. 1997. [Changes in the distribution of breeding colonies of Common Cormorants in the Kanto District {Japan}.] Strix 15: 95--108. (Res. Ctr., Wild Bird Soc. Japan, 2-35-2 Minamidaira, Hino, Tokyo 191-0041, Japan.) (Japanese, Engl. summary).

Noordhuis R., E. C. L. Marteijn, R. Noordhuis, S. Dirksen, T. J. Boudewijn. 1997. The trophic role of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in freshwater ecosystems in the Netherlands during the non-breeding period. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 249-262.

Osieck E. & O’Sullivan J. 1997. Position on the conflict between the Cormorant Phalacrcorax carbo and commercial fisheries interests in the European Union. BirdLife International.

Pajkert Z. & Gorski W. 1997. Breeding ecology of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in Slowinski National Park (Northern Poland). Ekologia polska, 45(1): 181-184.

Poluda A. M., I. I. Chernichko, V. V. Serebryakov, V. D. Siokhin, A. I. Korzyukov, M. E. Zhmud, A. I. Koshelev, I. Shchegolev & Belashkov I. D. 1997. The cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Ukraine. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 105-110.

Przybysz J., M. Mellin, I. Mirowska-Ibron, A. Przybysz & Gromadzka J. 1997. Recent development of cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis population in Poland. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 111-116.

Rřv N. 1997. Recent trends in cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo population in Norway. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 117-118.

Rřv N. 1997. Variation in colony size of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in central Norway. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 185-186.

Samusenko I., M. Nikiforov & Kozulin A. 1997. Status of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Belarus: distribution and population trends. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 119-122.

Sellers R.M. & Hughes B. 1997. Inventory of inland Cormorant roosts and breeding sites in Great Britain. Report to the Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Shkliarov L. 1997. Some data on blood parameters of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 187-

Stanevicius V. & Paltanavicius S. 1997. The cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in southern and eastern Lithuania. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 123-

Staub E. 1997. Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo predation and conflicts with species conservation and fisheries in Switzerland. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 309-310.

Stumberger B. 1997. Monitoring velikih kormoranov Phalacrcorax carbo sinensis v SV Sloveniji. [Monitoring of the cormorant Phalacrcorax carbo sinensis in NE Slovenia]. DOPPS - BirdLife International Slovenia.

Suter W. 1997. Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo predation on salmonid fish in two Swiss rivers: the use and abuse of fisheries data in impact assessment. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 311-

Suter W. 1997. Diet selection by cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in inland central Europe in the non-breeding season. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 265-266.

Suter W. 1997. Increase patterns, habitat choice and feeding tactics of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo wintering in inland central Europe: an integrated view. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 263-264.

Suter W. 1997. Roach rules: shoaling fish are a constant factor in the diet of Cormorants Palacrocorax carbo in Switzerland. Ardea 85: 9-27.

van Eerden M. R. & M. Zijlstra. 1997. An overview of the species composition in the diet of Dutch cormorants with reference to the possible impact on fisheries. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 223-232.

van Eerden M. R., M. Zijlstra. 1997. The cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in The Netherlands, an update for the period 1989-1992. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 53-56.

Veldkamp R. 1997. Prey size selection by cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo at Wanneperveen (The Nether]ands) with special reference to bream Abramis brama. Ekologia polska, 45(1): 267

Volponi S. 1997. Cormorants wintering in the Po Delta: estimates of fish consumption and possible impact on aquaculture production. Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina, XXVI:323-332.

Volponi S & Barbieri C. 1997. Evoluzione della popolazione di Cormorano svernante nel Delta del Po. Atti IX Convegno italiano di ornitologia. Avocetta, 21:56.

Volponi S. & Callegarini P. 1997. Osservazioni sul regime alimentare del Cormorano (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) nel Delta del Fiume Po nella stagione 1993/94. Laguna, 97/1:32-39.

Volponi S. & Emiliani D. 1997. Population, habitat choice and breeding success of Cormorants nesting in the Po delta area. Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina, XXVI: 569-574.

Wernham C.V., Armitage M., Hughes R., Hughes B., Holloway S.J., Kershaw M., Maden J.R., Marchant J.H., Peach, W.J. & Rehfisch M.M. 1997. Population, distribution, movements and survival of fish-eating birds in Great Britain. BTO Research Report No.185. Draft report by the British Trust for Ornithology under contract to the Department of the Environment (CR0180) and the Environment Agency.


Bartlett C. M. 1996. Morphogenesis of Contracaecum rudolphii (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea), a parasite of fish-eating birds, in its Copepod precursor and fish intermediate hosts. Parasite, 3(4): 367-376.

Bregnballe T. 1996. Udviklingen i bestanden af Mellemskarv i Nord- og Mellemeuropa 1960-1995. Dansk Orn. Foren. Tidsskr. 90:15-20. [Danish, English summary].

Davies J.M. & Feltham M.J. 1996. The diet of wintering cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo L. in relation to angling catches on a coarse river fishery in north-west England. pp. 106-110 In: Aquatic predators and their prey (S.P.R. Greenstreet & M.L. Tasker, Eds.).

Ekins G.R. 1996. The Abberton Reservoir (51°45´ N, 0°45´ E) tree-nesting Cormorant colony: a summary of recent research. Essex Bird Report, 1994: 153-167.

Feltham M.J. & Davies J.M. 1996. The daily food requirements of fish-eating birds: getting the sums right. In aquatic predators and their prey (Eds. S.P.R. Greenstreet & M.L. Tasker). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Glahn J. F., A. May, K. Bruce & Reinhold D. 1996. Censusing Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) at their iwnter roosts in the Delta Region of Mississippi. Colonial Waterbirds, 19(1): 73-81.

Grémillet, D., Dey, R., Wanless, S., Harris, M. P. & Regel, J. (1996) Determining food intake by Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) and European Shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) with electronic weighing units. J. field Ornithol. 67: 637-648.

Guruge K. S., S. Tanabe, M. Fukuda, S. Yamagishi & Tatsukawa R. 1996. Comparative tissue distribution of butyltin compounds in common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Japan. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 58: 197­208.

Guruge K. S., S. Tanabe, M. Fukuda, S. Yamagishi & Tatsukawa R. 1996. Accumulation pattern of persistent organochlorine residues in common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Japan. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34: 186­193.

Ishida A. 1996. Changes of soil properties in the colonies of the common cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo. Journal of Forest Research 1: 31­35.

Ishida A. 1996. Effects of the common cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo, on evergreen forests in two nest sites at Lake Biwa, Japan. Ecological Research 11: 193­200.

Keller T. 1996. Maßnahmen zur Abwehr von Kormoranen - Eine Übersicht. Ornitologischer Anzeiger 35: 13 - 23.

Keller T., T. Vordermeier, M. von Lukowicz & Klein M. 1996. Impact of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis on the fish stocks of several Bavarian water bodies with special enphasis on the ecological and economical aspects of fisheries. Orn. Anz., 35: 1-12.

Kirby J.S., Callaghan D.A., Hughes B. & Underhill M.C. 1996. Piscivorous birds and fisheries in the United Kingdom: a brief overview of current conflicts. Proceedings Fish-eating Birds Seminar, February 1994. Joint Nature Conservation Committee/English Nature, Peterborough, UK.

Kirby J.S., J. S. Holmes & Sellers R. M. 1996. Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo as fish predators: an appraisal of their conservation and management in Great-Britain. Biological Conservation, 75(2): 191-199.

Lea S. E. G., C. Daley, P. J. C. Boddington Morison V. 1996. Diving patterns in shags and cormorants (Phalacrocorax): tests of an optimal breathing model. Ibis 138: 391-398. (Dept. Psychol., Univ. Exeter, Washington Singer Lab., Exeter EX4 4QG, UK.)---Comparative study between Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Phalacrocorax carbo and Phalacrocorax varius.---

Lebreton J.-D. & Gerdeaux G. 1996. Gestion des population de Gran Cormoran (Phalacrocorax carbo) sejournanten France. Unpublished report, CEFE/CNRS, Montpellier, France.

Lekuona, J. M. & Campos F . 1996. Variation in the diet of Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) in the Bidasoa river and its estuary [Spain]. Ardeola, 43(2): 199-205. (Depto. Zool. & Ecol., Univ. Navarra, E-31080 Pamplona, Espańa.).

Pennie I. D. 1996. Cormorants on Handa [Scotland]. Scottish Birds 18: 191. (Badcall, Scourie, Sutherland, UK.)---Phalacrocorax carbo, history.---

Platteeuw M. 1996. Courtship feeding in breeding Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis? Cormorant Res. Group Bull., 2: 28-29.

Sellers R.M. & Hughes B. 1996. Status and breeding success of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Wales in 1996: the effect of the Sea Empress oil spill. Unpublished report to the Sea Empress Envi-ronmental Evaluation Committee.

Shogolev I. V. 1996. Fluctuation and trends in breeding populations of colonial waterbirds in the Dnestr Delta, Ukraine, Black Sea. Colonial Waterbirds, 19 (Special Publication 1): 91-97.

Suter W. & Morel P. 1996. Pellet analysis in the assessment of Great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo diet - Reducing biases from otolith wear when reconstructing fish length. Colonial Waterbirds, 19(2): 280-284.

Vangeluwe D., Beudels M.-O- & Lamani F. 1996. Conservation status of Albanian coastal wetlands and their waterbird populations (Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes). Colonial Waterbirds, 19 (Special Publication 1): 81-90.

Volponi S. 1996. Cormorani e attivitŕ produttive: nuove dall'Europa. Laguna, 2/96:26-37.

Watanuki Y., A. Kato & Naito Y. 1996. Diving performance of male and female Japanese Cormorants. Can. J. Zool., 74: 1098-1109. (Lab. Appl. Zool., Fac. Agric., Hokkaido Univ., Kita--9 Nishi--9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060, Japan.).

Wanink J. H. 1996. Foraging locations of kingfishers and cormorants at Lake Victoria depend on the distribution of harvestable prey. Afr. J. Ecol., 34: 90--93.


Babko V. M. 1995. Observations of the Cormorant and the Snowy Owl in the south-western part of Chernigiv region. Berkut. 4 (1-2). P. 102. (Observation were carried out in Kozelets district in 1986-1995). [In Russian].

Blanco G., F. Gomez & Morato G. 1995. Scavenging feeding by wintering Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Avocetta, 19: 224-225.

Blanco G., F. Gomez & Morato G. 1995. Composicion de la dieta y tamano de presa del cormoran grande (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) durante su invernada en rios y graveras del centro Espana. [Diet composition and prey size of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in rivers and gravel pits of Central Spain]. Ardeola, 42: 125-131.

Boudewijn T. J. & Dirksen S . 1995. Impact of contaminants on the breeding success of the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in The Netherlands. Ardea, 83 (1): 352-338. --- Organochlorine contaminants most likely cause of reduced egg shell thickness, high embryo mortality, and high nestling mortality in Biesbosch colony.---

Bregnballe T. & Gregersen J. 1995. Development of the breeding population of Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in Denmark 1938-1994. Dansk Ornitologisk Forenings Tidsskrift, 89: 119-134.

Camphuysen C.J., Duiven P. & Zuidewind J. 1995. Aalscholvers Phalacrocorax carbo als broedvogel op Vlieland. Sula 9(1): 26-30.

Davies J.M. & Feltham M.J. 1995. Do cormorants and anglers compete for the same resource? Proc. 25th Ann. Inst. Fish. Man. Study Course, 1994, Lancaster. pp. 167-188.

Debout G., N. Rřv & Sellers R. M. 1995. Status and population development of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo carbo breeding on the Atlantic coast of Europe. Ardea, 83 (1): 47--59. (Groupe Ornithol. Normand, Univ. Caen, F%14032 Caen Cedex, France). ---About 37,000 pairs in France, Britain, Ireland and Norway, mainly nesting on cliffs.---

de Nie H. 1995. Changes in the inland fish populations in Europe in relation to the increase of the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Ardea, 83 (1): 115-122. (Org. Improvement Inland Fish., P.O. Box 433, 3430 AK Nieuwegein, Netherlands.)---Increasing eutrophication generally favors unstable fish populations; Cormorants adapt to relatively turbid eutrophic waters by social fishing.---

Dieperink C. 1995. Depredation of commercial and recreational fisheries in a Danish fjord by cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis Shaw). Fish. Manage. & Ecol., 2: 197-207.

Dirksen S., T. J. Boudewijn, L. K. Slager, R. G. Mes, M. J. M. van Schaick & de Voogt P. 1995. Reduced breeding success of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in relation to persistent organochlorine pollution of aquatic habitats in the Netherlands. Environ. Pollut., 88: 119-132.

Dirksen S. et al. 1995. Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in shallow eutrophic freshwater lakes: prey choice and fish consumption in the non-breeding period and effects of large-scale fish removal. Ardea, 83 (1): 167-184. ---Cormorants probably support water management by preferentially catching fish hazardous to transparency of water.---

Franckx H. 1995. Is the cormorant becoming a problem ? Wielewaal, 61: 120.

Feltham M.J. & Davies J.M. 1995. Diet of cormorants, Phalacrocorax carbo L., from two fisheries in north-west England. Fish. Manage. & Ecol., 2:157-159.

Feltham M.J. & Davies J.M. 1995. How much do cormorants and goosanders eat? Proc. Inst. Fisheries Management Annual Study Course, Lancaster 1994, 25:143-166.

Grémillet D. 1995. "Wing-drying" in Cormorants. J. Avian Biol., 26: 176.

Grémillet D., D. Schmid & Culik B. 1995. Energy requírements of breeding Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 121: 1-9.

Hustler K. 1995. Cormorant and Darter prey size selection under experimental conditions. Ostrich 66: 109--113. (P.O. Box 159, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe).

Kasoma P. M. B. 1995. Cormorant regurgitation and scavenging by large waterbirds at an avian loafing site in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol., 33: 294-296.

Keller T. 1995. Food of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis wintering in Bavaria, southern Germany. Ardea, 83 (1): 185-192. (Weinbergstrasse 9, D--97753 Karlstadt-Stetten, Germany.)---Unlikely that birds impose serious threat to commercial fisheries, with 3.3% taken of annual fish production at Chiemsee and 21% at lower Inn.

Kirby J. S., A. S. Gilburn & Sellers R. M . 1995. Status, distribution and habitat use by Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo wintering in Britain. Ardea, 83 (1): 93-102. (Res. Cons. Dept., Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, Gloucester, GL2 7BT, UK.)---Total winter population reached 19,000 birds in 1991, with 25% increase per annum since 1987/88.---

Koffijberg K., & van Eerden M. R . 1995. Sexual dimorphism in the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis: possible implications for differences in structural size. Ardea, 83 (1): 37-46. (Rijkswaterstaat, Dir. Flevoland, P.O. Box 600, 8200 AP Lelystad, Netherlands). ---Males significantly larger in all body dimensions, but no size difference between adults and juveniles.---

Kortlandt A. 1995. Patterns of pair-formation and nest-building in the European Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Ardea, 83 (1): 11-25. (88 Woodstock Rd., Oxford OX2 7ND, UK.)---Sex-specific ontogeny and seasonal patterns of nesting behavior.---

Lindell L. et al. 1995. Status and population development of breeding Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis of the central European flyway. Ardea, 83 (1): 81-92. (Sparregatan 13, S--39230 Kalmar, Sweden.)---Increasing since 1980, with mean annual growth rates from 14% in Poland to 27% in Sweden.---R.G.B.

Marion L. 1995. Where two subspecies meet: origin, habitat choice and niche segregation of Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo carbo and Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in the common wintering area (France), in relation to breeding isolation in Europe. Ardea, 83 (1): 103-114. (Lab. Evol. Syst. Nat. & Modifiés, Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., Univ. Rennes, U.A. 696, Campus Beaulieu, Boulevard Gén. Leclerc, F%35042, France.)---P. c. carbo winters mainly at sea, P. c. sinensis inland.---

Mollet P. & Jenny D. 1995. [Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos catches Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in mid-air.] Ornithol. Beob. 92: 173. (German, Engl. summary).

Mughogho D. E. C., & Munthali S. M . 1995. The influence of water depth on foraging location of two species of kingfisher and two species of cormorant on the Sabie River within the Kruger National Park. Afr. J. Ecol., 33: 81-83.

Musil P., J. Janda & de Nie H. 1995. Changes in abundance and selection of foraging habitat in Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in South Bohemia (Czech Republic). Ardea, 83 (1): 247-253. (Inst. Appl. Ecol., Kostelec nadernmi lesy, CS 281 63, Czech Republic.)---Increase since establishment in 1983, foraging in shallow water and catching fish between 100-200 mm.---

Platteeuw M., K. Koffijberg & Dubbeldam W . 1995. Growth of Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis chicks in relation to brood size, age ranking and parental fishing effort. Ardea, 83 (1): 235-245. (Rijkswaterstaat, Dir. Flevoland, P.O. Box 600, 8200 AP Lelystad, Netherlands.)

Platteeuw M. & van Eerden M. R. 1995. Time and energy constraints of fishing behaviour in breeding Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis at lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Ardea, 83 (1): 223-234. (Rijkswaterstaat, Dir. Flevoland, P.O. Box 600, 8200 AP Lelystad, Netherlands.)---Travelling distance between colony and foraging site may influence reproductive output.---

Platteeuw M., M. R. van Eerden & van de Guchte K . 1995. Variation in contaminant content of livers from Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis living nearby a polluted sedimentation area in lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Ardea, 83 (1): 315-324. (Rijkswaterstaat, Dir. Flevoland, P.O. Box 600, 8200 AP Lelystad, Netherlands.)---Levels generally lower in immature birds than in adults, and related to sex and apparent individual differences in food choice.---

Reymond A. & Zuchuat O. 1995. Perch fidelity of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo outside the breeding season. Ardea, 83 (1): 281-284. (Swiss Inst. Exp. Cancer Res., CH--1066 Epalinges, Switzerland.)---Perch fidelity increases with age of Cormorant, and is not correlated with duration of stay.---

Reymond A. & Zuchuat O. 1995. Axial migration routes in Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo passing through or wintering in Switzerland. Ardea, 83 (1): 275-280. (Swiss Inst. Exp. Cancer Res., CH--1066 Epalinges, Switzerland). ---Based on sightings of color rings, Danish (and Dutch) birds predominate in winter.--

Richner H. 1995. Wintering Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo carbo in the Ythan estuary, Scotland: numerical and behavioural responses to fluctuating prey availability. Ardea, 83 (1): 193-197. (Culterty Field Stn., Dept. Zool., Univ. Aberdeen, Scotland.)

Schmid D., D. Grémillet & Culik B. 1995. Energetics of underwater swimming in the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis). Mar. Biol., 123: 875-881.

Sellers R. M. 1995. Wing-spread behaviour of the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo. Ardea, 83 (1): 27-36. (Rose Cottage, Ragnall Ln., Walkley Wood, Nailsworth, Glos. GL6 0RU, UK.)---Dries the wings and ultimately conserves metabolic energy.---

Suter W. 1995. Are Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo wintering in Switzerland approaching carrying capacity? An analysis of increase patterns and habitat choice. Ardea, 83 (1): 255-266. (Schweizerische Vogelwarte, CH--6204 Sempach, Switzerland.)---Probably, as Cormorant density is linked with those of cyprinids and percids, which decrease as result of reduction in input rate of nutrients into lakes.---

Suter W. 1995. The effect of predation by wintering Cormorants Phlacrocorax carbo on Grayling Thymallus thymallus and Trout (Salmonidae) populations - Two case studies from Swiss rivers. Journal Applied Ecology, 32(1): 29-46.

Trauttmansdorff J., & Wassermann G.. 1995. Number of pellets produced by immature Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Ardea, 83 (1): 133-134. (Inst. Angewandte Öko-Ethol., Abt. Donau, A--2000, Stockerau, Austria.)---Juvenile Cormorants start pellet production at age of 2 months.---

van den Berg M.,et al. 1995. The (possible) impact of chlorinated dioxins (pcdds), dibenzofurans (pcdfs) and biphenyls (pcbs) on the reproduction of the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo---an ecotoxicological approach. Ardea 83, (1): 299-313. (Res. Inst. Toxicol., Univ. Utrecht, P.O. Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht, Netherlands.)

van Dobben, W. H. 1995. The food of the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis: old and new research. Ardea, 83 (1): 139-142.

van Eerden M. R., K. Koffijberg & Platteeuw M. 1995. Riding the crest of the wave: possibilities and limitations for a thriving population of migratory Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in man-dominated wetlands. Ardea, 83 (1): 1-9. (Rijkswaterstaat, Dir. Flevoland, P.O. Box 600, 8200 AP Lelystad, Netherlands.)---Overview of recovery of Cormorants in Europe after taking protective measures, and apparent conflicts with human interests.---

van Eerden M. R. & Munsterman M. J. 1995. Sex and age dependent distribution in wintering Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in western Europe. Ardea, 83 (1): 285-297. (Rijkswaterstaat, Dir. Flevoland, P.O. Box 600, 8200 AP Lelystad, Netherlands). ---Unequal sex ratio may reflect different mortality rates in relation to cost of migration, being highest in females and juveniles.---

van Eerden M. R. & Voslamber B. 1995. Mass fishing by Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis al lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands: a recent and successful adaptation to a turbid environment. Ardea, 83 (1): 199-212. (Rijkswaterstaat, Dir. Flevoland, P.O. Box 600, 8200 AP Lelystad, Netherlands.)---Mass fishing enables birds to exploit turbid water and extend foraging range.---

Veldkamp R. 1995. Diet of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis at Wanneperveen, The Netherlands, with special reference to Bream Abramis brama. Ardea, 83 (1): 143-155. (De Rikking 46, 8332 CG Steenwijk, Netherlands.)---Consume 5--16% of standing stock of Abramis brama in lakes near colony, mainly individuals >200 mm.---

Veldkamp R. 1995. The use of chewing pads for estimating the consumption of cyprinids by Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo. Ardea, 83 (1): 135-138. (De Rikking, 8332 CG Steenwijk, Netherlands.)

Voslamber B., M. Platteeuw & van Eerden M. R . 1995. Solitary foraging in sand pits by breeding Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis: does specialised knowledge about fishing sites and fish behaviour pay off? Ardea, 83 (1): 213-222. (Rijkswaterstaat, Dir. Flevoland, P.O. Box 600, 8200 AP Lelystad, Netherlands.)---Only "higher quality" birds can profitably use solitary fishing in early spring.---

Warke G. M. A. & Day K. R . 1995. Changes in abundance of cyprinid and percid prey affect rate of predation by Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo carbo on Salmon Salmo salar smolt in northern Ireland. Ardea, 83 (1): 157-166. (Dept. Biol. Biomed. Sci., Univ. Ulster, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK.)---Year-round fishing may have significant impact on older salmon parr.---R.G.B.

Wilson R. P. & Grémillet D. 1995. Energetics and behaviour of diving birds in cold water: cormorants in wet suits versus penguins in dry suits. Physiol. Zool., 68: 104.

Wilson R. P., Pütz K., Grémillet D., Culik B. M., Kierspel M., Regel J., Bost C. A., Lage J. & Cooper J. 1995. Reliability of stomach temperature changes in determining feeding characteristics of seabirds. J. Exp. Biol. 198: 1115-1135.

Wilson R. P. & Wilson M. P . 1995. Buoyancy and depth utilisation in foraging Cormorants: wet feathers and that sinking feeling. Gerfaut, 85: 41-47. (Inst. Meereskunde, Dusternbrooker Weg 20, D-24105, Germany). ---Phalacrocorax carbo, Phalacrocorax neglectus, Phalacrocorax capensis, Phalacrocorax coronatus.---

Yésou P. 1995. Individual migration strategies in Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo passing through or wintering in western France. Ardea 83 (1): 267--274. (Off. Nat. Chasse, 53 Rue Russeil, F--44000 Nantes, France). ---Short-stayers not site-faithful, contrary to long-stayers.---

Zijlstra M. & van Eerden M. R. 1995. Pellet production and the use of otoliths in determining the diet of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis trials with captive birds. Ardea, 83 (1): 123-131. (Rijkswaterstaat, Dir. Flevoland, P.O. Box 600, 8200 AP Lelystad, Netherlands.) ---Produce single pellet/day, containing undigested remains of food caught previous day.---


Blanco G., T. Velasco, J. Grijalbo & Ollero J. 1994. Great cormorant settlement of a new wintering area in Spain. Colonial Waterbirds, 17(2): 173-180.

Callaghan D. A., Kirby J.S. & Bell M.C. 1994. An assessment of cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo occupancy and impact at stillwater game fisheries in England and Wales. Report to ASGFM. WWT, Slimbridge.

Campos F. and J. M. Lekuona 1994. La poblacion invernate de cormoran grande (Phalacrocorax carbo) en el norte de Espagna y suroeste de Francia. Ardeola, 41(1): 13-18.

Carss D. N. 1994. Killing of piscivorous birds at Scottish fin fish farms, 1984-1987. Biological conservation, 68: 181-188.

EIFAC. 1994. Effects of cormorant predation on fish populations of inland waters. Working document for 18th session of EIFAC, and report of the EIFAC working party, Starnberg, Germany, July 1993. F.A.O., Rome. 43pp.

Ekins G.R. 1994. The Dark fisherman. A summary of the main findings of research on the Abberton wintering and breeding populations of Cormorants. Essex Wildlife, January 1994.

Ekins G. & Hughes B. 1994. Post-fledging dispersal of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo as an indicator of sub-specific status. Unpubl. WWT report, Slimbridge.

Feltham M. J. & Davies M. 1994. How much cormorants and goosanders eat? Getting the sums right. Institute of Fisheries Management. Annual Study Course Proceedings, 25: 143-166.

Fukuda M. 1994. Long distance movements of color­banded Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo from the natal colony. Bull. JBBA 9 :5­10. (In Japanese with English summary).

Grémillet D. & Plos A. L. 1994. The use of stomach temperature records for the calculation of daily food-intake in Cormorants. Journal Experimental Biology, 189: 105-115. [download .pdf]

Grémillet D., Schmid D. & Culik B. 1994. Energy requirements of breeding Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. J. für Orn., 135: 238.

Grieco F. 1994. Fledging rate in the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo at the colony of Val Campotto (Po Delta, N-E Italy). Avocetta, 18: 57-61.

Hald-Mortensen P. .1994. Danske skarvers fřdevalg 1992-1994. Miljř- og Energiministeriet, Skov- og Naturstyrelsen. Křbenhavn.

Marquiss, M. & Carss, D.N. 1994. Avian piscivores: basis for policy. 31pp. Published by NRA as "Fish-eating birds: assessing their impact on freshwater fisheries" (R & D Report No. 15). National Rivers Authority.

Marquiss, M. & Carss, D.N. 1994. Avian piscivores: basis for policy. NRA R & D report 461/8/N&Y. 104 pp.

Marion L. 1994. Evolution numerique et prefernces ecologique des grandes cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo hivernant en France. Alauda, 62(1): 13-26.

Martucci O. & Giovacchini P. 1994. SOme aspects of the feeding habits of the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in the Maremma Natural Park (Grosseto, Central Italy). Avocetta, 18: 53-56.

Moravec F. & Scholz T. 1994. Observations on the development of Syncuaria squamata (Nematoda, Acuariidae), a parasite of Cormorants, in the intermediate and paratenic hosts. Folia Parasitologica, 41(3): 183-192.

Staub E. & Ball R. 1994. Effects of Cormorant predation on fish populations of inland waters. FAO European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, XVIII Session, Rome 17-25 May 1994.

Stewart-Smith F. 1994. Great Cormorant "playing" in up-currents, and reactions ofbirds to model sailplane. Br. Birds, 87: 333.

Vandenberg M., Blhj Craane, T. Sinnige, S. Vanmourik, S. Dirksen, T.Boudewijn, M. Vandergaag, I. J. Lutkeschipholt, B. Spenkelink & Brouwer A. 1994. Biochemical and toxic effects of Polychlorinated-Biphenyls (Pcbs), Dibenzo-P-Dioxins (Pcdds) and Dibenzofurans (Pcdfs) in the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) after inovo exposure. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 13(5): 803-816.

Warke G.M.A., Day K.R., Greer J.E. & Davidson R.D. 1994. Cormorant populations and patterns of abundance at breeding and feeding sites in Northern Ireland, with particular reference to Lough Neagh. Hydrobiologia, 279/280: 91-100.


Buchheim A. & Bellebaum J. 1993. Bruten des Kormorans (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Charadrius, 29: 93-97.

Carss D. N. 1993. Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo at cage fish farms in Argyll, western Scotland. Seabird, 15: 38-44.

Cornelisse K. J. & Christensen K. D. 1993. Investigation of a cover net designed to reduce Southern Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) fisheries depredation in a pound net. Ices Journal of Marine Science, 50(3): 279-284.

Dieperink, C. 1993. Factors regulating growth rate of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis Shaw) in Denmark. EIFAC Workshop, Starnberg, Germany, July 1993.

Dieperink, C. 1993. Fisheries depredation caused by cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis Shaw). EIFAC Workshop, Starnberg, Germany, July 1993.

Marquiss M. & Carss D.N. 1992. The stomach content of Goosanders and Cormorants from the River Tweed. Tweed Forum Consortium.

Marquiss M. & Carss D.N. 1992. Fish-eating birds research in 1991/92. Progress report. Scottish Office Agriculture & Fisheries Department.

McCarthy T.K., Doherty D. & Hasset D. 1993. The cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Irish inland waters. Working document for 18th session of EIFAC, and report of the EIFAC working party, Starnberg, Germany, July 1993. F.A.O., Rome. 43pp.

Martucci O., l. Pietrelli & Consiglio C. 1993. Fish otoliths as indicators of the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo diet (Aves, Pelecaniformes). Bollettino Di Zoologia, 60(4): 393-396.

Nasincova V., F. Moravec & Scholz T. 1993. Trematodes of the Common Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Czech Republic, Acta. Soc. Zool. Bohem., 57: 31-46.

Sarŕ M. & Baccetti N. 1993. Food habits of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) on a shoal (Secche di Meloria) in the Tyrrenian sea. In: Aguilar J.S. X. Montbailliu & Pterson A. M. (eds.), Status and conservation od seabirds. SEO & Medmaravis, Madrid, pp. 221-227.

Sellers R.M. 1993. Racial identity of cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo breeding at the Abberton Reservoir colony, Essex. Seabird, 15: 45-52.

Volponi S. & Rossi R. 1993. Primi dati sulla presenza e l'attivitŕ di foraggiamento del Cormorano nelle Valli di Comacchio (Delta del Po), nel corso degli inverni 1989/90 e 1990/91. Annali dell'Universitŕ di Ferrara, Sezione Biologia e Medicina, 3: 1-13.

Wissmath P., Wunner U. & Pavlinec M. 1993. Kormoraner in Bayern - bereicherung der natur oder eine plage? Fischer & Teichwirt, 7: 238-244.


Fukuda M. 1992. Male­male pairing of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo hanedae). Colonial Waterbird Society Bulletin 16:62­63.

Keller T. 1992. Untersuchungen zur nahrungs"kologie von in Bayern _berwinternden kormoranen Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Ornithologische Verhandlungen, 25: 82-127.

Linn I. J. & Campbell K. L. I. 1992. Interactions between White-breasted Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) and the fisheries of Lake Malawi. J. Appl. Ecol, 29: 619-634.

Morel, P. 1992. Beuteartenspektrum der Kormorane vom schlafplatz Kembs in den wintern 1986/87 bis 1988/89. Schriftenreihe Fischerei 50:146-157.

Okill J. D., J. A. Fowler, P. M. Ellis Petrie G. W. 1992. The diet of cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo chicks in Shetland in 1989. Seabird, 14: 21-26.

Platteeuw M., J. H. Beekman, T. J. Boudewijn and Marteijn E. 1992. [Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Lake Ketelmeer outside the breeding season: numbers, food choice and food availability]. (In Dutch). Limosa, 65: 93-102.

Snook C. 1992. Cormorant's method of dealing with large flatfish. Br. Birds, 85: 238.

Staub E., Krämer A., Müller R., Ruhlé Ch. & Walter J. 1992. Einfluss des kormorans (Phalacrocorax carbo) auf fischbest„nde und fangerträge in der Schweiz. Schriftenreihe Fischerei 50:1-131.

Urban E. K. 1992. Seasonal and opportunistic nesting of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Ethiopia. Proc. VIII Pan-African Ornithol. Congr., 475-480.

van den Berg M., Craane B.L.H.J. & Sinnige T. 1992. The use of biochemical parameters in comparative toxicological studies with the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in the Netherlands.Chemosphere, 25(7/10): 1265-

Volponi S. & Rossi R. 1992. Produzione e predatori: un problema insolubile? Laguna, 8:20-25.


Carrier M. & Baker G. 1991. Breeding cormorants in the Solway. Birds in Cumbria, (1991): 76-78.

Carss D. N. 1990. ‘Beak prints’ help in war against aerial invaders. Fish Farmer, 13: 46-47.

Marquiss M. & Carss D.N. 1991-1995. Stomach contents of sawbill ducks and cormorants shot under licence. A series of five reports to the Scottish Office Agriculture & Fisheries Department.

Martucci O. & Consiglio C. 1991. Activity rhythm and food. choice of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering near Rome, ltaly. Gerfau,t 18: 151-160.

Sánchez A., J. A. Alvarez & Sánchez-Guzmán J. M . 1991. [Census of wintering gulls (Larus spp.) and cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Extremadura {Spain} January, 1990.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 5: 143--150. (Agencia Med. Amb. Junta, Extremadura, E-06871 Mérida, Espańa.)

Scharenberg, W. 1991. Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis as bioindicators for polychlorinated biphenyls. Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, 21: 536-540.

Suter W. 1991. Der einfluss fischfressender vogelarten auf süsswasserfisch bestände - eine übersicht. Journal für Ornithologie, 132: 29-45.

Wissmath P., Wunner U., Limburg U. & Huber B. 1991. Verzehren überwinternde kormorane Phalacrocorax carbo abnorm hohe fischmengen? Fischer & Teichwirt, 1: 21-23.


Barrett R. T., N. Rřv & Montevecchi W. A. 1990. Diets of shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis and cormorants P. carbo in Norway and possible implications for ganoid stock recruitment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 66: 205-218.

Carpegna F., M. Della Toffola & Alessandria G. 1990. Nidificazione di Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in Piemonte. Rivista Italiana Ornitologia, 60: 205-207.

Ekins G.R. 1990. Origins of Cormorants wintering in Essex with some reference to the Abberton Reservoir colony. Essex Bird Report, 1989:115-122.

Górski, W., Pajkert, Z. & Gorba I. 1990. [Competition and commensalism - two types of interaction between cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, and herring gulls, Larus argentatus]. Prz. zool. 34: 527 - 532

Janda J. & Machacek P. 1990. Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo, in Bohemia and Moravia in 1982-1988. Sylvia, 27: 55-70.

Mizutani H., M. Fukuda, Y. Kabaya & Wada E. 1990. Carbon isotope ratio of feathers reveals feeding behavior of cormorants. Auk 107: 400­437.

Summers R.W. & Laing S. 1990. Movements of Cormorants from the Lamb, Firth of Forth. Scottish Birds, 16: 29-32.


Baccetti N. (ed.). 1989. Lo svernamento del Cormorano in Italia. Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina, XV:

Boudewijn T. J., S. Dirksen, R. G. Mes & Slager B. L. K.1989. [The cormorant: a useful guide to the quality of Netherlands'waters?]. Limosa 62:96-97. (Dutch, English summary).

Ekins, G.R. 1989. Origins of Cormorants wintering in Essex with some reference to the Abberton Reservoir colony. Essex Bird Report, 21: 113–123.

Mikusk J. & Muzinic J. 1989 (1988). [Record of Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo carbo (Linnaeus, 1758) in Yugoslavia]. Larus, 40: 77-80. (English summary).

Sellers R.M. 1989. Origin and age of Cormorants wintering on the Severn Estuary. Glos. Naturalist, 3: 27-30.

Vaadia Y., Frankenberg E., Ben-Zvi Y. & Degani G. 1989. The great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in fish ponds of the Huleh Valley. Israeli J. Zool., 36: 153-154.


Draulans D. 1988. Effects of fish-eating birds on freshwater stocks: an evaluation. Biological Conservation, 44: 251-261.

EIFAC. 1988. Report of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission working party on the prevention and control of bird predation in aquaculture and fisheries operations. EIFAC technical paper no. 51. 79 pp. F.A.O., Rome.

Feare C.J. 1988. Cormorants as predators at freshwater fisheries. Institute of Fisheries Management Annual Study Course, 18: 18-42.

Harkonen T. J. 1988. Food-habitat relationship of harbour seals and black cormorants in Skagerrak and Kattegat. J. Zool. Lond, 214: 637-681.

Kennedy G. 1988. Predation by Cormorants on the salmonid population of an Irish river. Aquacult. Fish Manage., 19(2): 159-170.

Debout, G. 1988. La biologie de reproduction du Gran cormoran en Normandie. Oiseau Rev. Francais Orn., 58(1): 1-17.

Mikuska J. and Muzinic J. 1988. [Record of Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo carbo (Linnaeus, 1758) in Yugoslavia]. Larus, 40: 77-80.

Przybysz J., J. Engel, M. Mellin, A. Mrugasiewicz & Przybyl A. 1988. [A quantitative increase of Cormorants (Phalacrocorac carbo sinensis Shaw et Nodder) populations in Poland. Prz. Zool., 32(1): 71-82. (In Polish with English summary).

Sato K., Hwang-Bo. J. & Okumura J. 1988. Food consumption and basal metabolic rate in common cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo. Laboratory of Animal Physiology Nagoya University, 8: 58-62.

van Eerden M.R. & Zijlstra M. 1988. Aalscholvers Phalacrocorax carbo met kleurringen uit de Oostvaardersplassen. [COLOUR RINGED CORMORANTS Phalacrocorax carbo FROM THE OOSTVAARDERSPLASSEN COLONY]. Limosa 61: 57-60. (In Dutch with English summary).


Debout G. 1987. Le Grand cormroan, Phalacrocorax carbo, en France: les populations nicheuses litorales. Alauda, 55(1): 35-54.

Fukuda M. 1987. Movements of Common Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo marked with colored bands in Japan. Bull. JBBA 3:63­70. (In Japanese with English summary).

Mac Donald R. A. 1987. The breeding population and distribution of the Cormorant in Ireland. Ir. Birds, 3(3): 405-416.

Macdonald R.A. 1987. Cormorants and fisheries. BTO News, 150:12.

Moerbeek D. J., W. H. van Dobben, E. R. Osieck, G. C. Boere & Bungenberg de Jong C. M. 1987. Cormorant damage prevention at a fish farm in the Netherlands. Biol. Conserv., 39(1): 23-38.

Porter R. 1987. Wintering Cormorant survey 1985/86. BTO News, 150: 11.

Rřv N. & Strann K. B. 1987. The present status, breeding distribution, and colony size of the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo carbo in Norway. Fauna Norv. Ser. C, Cinclus, 10: 39-44.

Sellers R.M. & Sutcliffe S.J. 1987. Colour-ringing Cormorants. BTO News, 150: 13.

Staub E. 1987. Kormoran und Fischerei. Schriftenr. Fisch. Bundesamt umweltschutz (Switz.), 47: 1-56.

Winkler R. 1987. [Wing and tail moult in young cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis.] (In German). Ornithol Beob., 84(4): 317-323.


Builles A., J.M. Julian, P. Yesou & Girard O. 1986. Rythme d'activité et occupation de l'čspace par le Gran Cormoran (Phalacrocorax carbo) sur un site d'hivernage: l'exemple de la Région d'Olonne (Vendée). Gibier Faune Sauvage, 3: 43-65.

Müller R. 1986. Die nahrung des Kormorans Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis am Bodendee. Fischereiwissenschaf, 3: 1-2.

Peero M. 1986. Evolution du statut de Grand Cormoran (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) en Wallonie et Brabant. Aves, 23: 13-21.

Spina F., F. Bolognesi, S. Frugis & Piacentini D . 1986. Il Cormorano, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, torna a riprodursi nell'Italia continentale: accertata nidificazione in Val Campotto (Ferrara). Rivista Italiana Ornitologia 56: 127-129.

van Eerden M. R. and Munsterman M. J. 1986. Importance of the Mediterranean for wintering cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis., pp. 124-141. In: Medmaravis and X. Monbailliu (eds.), Mediterranean Marine Avifauna. NATO ASI Series. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.

Walravens M. 1986. Observation automnale de la migration du Grand Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) dans la vallee de la Woluwe. Aves, 23: 23-33.

Wilson J. G. & Early J. J. 1986. Pesticide and PCB levels in the eggs of shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis and cormorant P. carbo from Ireland. Environ. Pollut. Ser. B, 12: 15-26.


Alström P. 1985. Artbestamning av storskarv Phalacrocorax carbo och toppskarv Ph. aristotelis. Vĺr Fĺglevärld, 44: 325-350.

Drury W. H. & Hatch J. J. 1985. Great Cormorants nesting on New England coast. Am. Birds, 39: 259.

Hogan G. G. 1985. Noosing adult cormorants for banding. N. Am. Bird Bander, 10: 76-77.

Giardina B., M. Corda, M. G. Pellegrini, S. G. Condo and Brunori M. 1985. Functional properties of the hemoglobin system of two diving birds (Podiceps nigricollis and Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis). Molecular Physiology, 7: 281-292.


Hansen K. 1984. The distribution and numbers of the southern Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in Europe. Dansk Orn. Foren. Tidsskr., 78: 29-40.

Im B.H. & Hafner H. 1984. Impact des oiseaux piscivores et plus particulierement du grand comoran Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis sur les exploitations piscicoles en Camargue, France. Le Sambuc, Station Biologique de la Tour du Valat.

Rřv N. 1984. Clutch size and hatching time in colonies of Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo carbo in central Norway 1982-1984. Fauna Norv. Ser. C, Cinclus, 7: 124-126.


Counsell D. 1983. A colony of Cormorants at a fresh water loch in North Uist. Hebridean Naturalist, 7: 25-26.

Marion L. 1983. Biogeographical, ecological and taxonomic problems raised by the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie), 38(1): 65-95.

Milton G. R. & Austin-Smith P. J. 1983. Changes in the abundance and distribution of Double-crested (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Great cormorants (P. carbo) in Nova Scotia. Colonial Waterbirds, 6: 130-138.

Milton G. R. & Austin-Smith P. J. 1983. Population levels and the relationships of Double-crested (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Great (P. carbo) cormorants to the sport and inshore commercěal fisheries of Nova Scotia 1979-80. Unpubl. rep., Nova Scotia Dep. Lands For., Kentville.

Mikuska, J. 1983. Contribution to the knowledge of the feeding habits of the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (L., 1758) in the Kopacewski Rit Zoological Reservation. Larus, 33-35: 31-36.

Pilon C., J. Burton and McNeil R. 1983. Reproduction du grand cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) et du cormorant ŕ aigrettes (P. auritus) aux iles de la Madeleine, Quebec. Can. J. Zool., 61:524-30.


Brooke R. K., J. Cooper, P. A. Shelton and Crawford R. J. M. 1982. Taxonomy, distribution, population size, breeding and conservation of the whitebreasted cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo, on the southern African coast. Gerfaut 72:189-220.



Nilsson L. 1980. Flyttning och övervintring hos svenska Storskarvar Phalacrocorax carbo. Fauna och flora, 75: 209-216.

Skead D. M. 1980. Dispersal, life expectancy and annual mortality of whitebreasted cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo ringed as nestlings at Barberspan. Cormorant, 8:73-80.

1970 - 1979

Abdulali H. 1976. The occurrence of Russian-ringed large cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis Shaw) in India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 73:212-13.

Erskine A. J. 1972. The great cormorants of eastern Canada. Can. Wíldl. Serv. Occas. Paper no. 14.

Gardarsson A. 1979. [A census of breeding great cormorants and European shags in Iceland in 1975.] Ndttúrufraedingurinn 49:126-54. (Icelandic, English summary.)

Hogan G. 1979. Breeding parameters of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) at mixed species colonies on Prince Edward Island, Canada. M.Sc. thesis, Brock Univ., St. Catharines, ON.

Jonsson B. 1979. Skarvarna och yrkesfisket i södra Kalmarsund. Calidris, 8: 171-220.

Kenyon Ross R. 1976. Notes on the behavior of captive Great Cormorants. Wilson Bull., 88: 143-145.

Lock A. R. and Ros sR. K. 1973. The nesting of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) in Nova Scotia in 1971. Can. Field-Nat., 87:43-49.

McIntosh J. 1978. Distribution and food of the Cormorant on the lower reaches of the River Tweed. Fish Manage., 9: 107-113.

McNicholl M. K. & Hogan G. G. 1979. Wind-caused death of Great Cormorant. Can. Field-Nat., 93: 17.

Olver M. D. Kuyper M. A. 1978. Breeding biology of the Whitebreasted Cormorant in Natal. Ostrich, 49: 25-30.

Ross R. K. 1974. Notes on wintering Great Cormorants in Nova Scotia. Can. Field-Nat., 88: 493-494.

Ross R. K. 1976. Notes on the behavior of captive Great Cormorants. Wilson Bull, 88: 143-145.

Ross R. K. 1977. A comparison of the feeding and nesting requirements of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo L.) and the double-crested cormorant (P. auritus Lesson) in Nova Scotia. Proc. Nov. Scot. Inst. Sci., 1974-1976 27:112-14.

Sellers R.M. 1979. The changing status of the Cormorant in Gloucestershire. Glos. Bird Report, 1979: 56-61.

Siefke A. & Berger W. 1979. Zug und winterquartier der Rügen-Strelasund-Populationd des Kormorans, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Beitr. Vogelkd., 25: 65-74.

Urban E. K. 1979. Observations on the nesting biology of the Great cormorant in Ethiopia. Wilson Bull., 91:461-463.

West B., D. Cabot & Greer-Walkob M. 1975. The food of the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) at some breeding colonies in Ireland. Proc. R. Irish Acad., 75: 285-305.

1960 - 1969

Coulson J.C. 1961. Movements and seasonal variation in mortality of shags and cormorants ringed on the Farne Islands, Northumberland. Brit. Birds, 54: 225-235.

Coulson J. C. & Brazendale M. G. 1968. Movements of cormorants ringed in the British Isles and evidence of a colony-specific dispersal. British Birds, 61: 1-21.

Mills D. 1969. The food of the Cormorant at two breeding colonies on the east coast of Scotland. Scott. Birds, 5: 268-276.

Rae B. B. 1969. The food of cormorants and shags in Scottish estuaries and coastal waters. Mar. Res., 1: 1-16.

Before 1960

Berglund T. 1958. Om skarvarna Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis i Kalmarsund. Vĺr Fĺgelvärld, 17: 44-49.

Cudger E. W. 1926. Fishing with the cormorant. I. In China. Amer. Nat. 60:5-41.

Cudger E. W. 1929. Fishing with the cormorant in Japan. Scient. Monthly 29:5-38.

Gregory, T.C. 1948. Colony of tree-nesting Cormorants in Kent. Brit. Birds 41:185-186.

Lack D. 1945. The ecology of closely related species with special reference to cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and shag (P. aristotelis). J. Anim. Ecol., 14: 12-16.

KortIandt A. 1940. [A review of innate behaviors of the European great cormorant, their function, ontogenetic development and phylogenetic origins, and the interactions of instincts.]. Arch. Ne'erl. Zool., 4:403-22. (In German, English translation available at Edward Grey Institute Library, Oxford.)

KortIandt A. 1942. Levensloop, semelstelling en structuur der Nederlands aalscholverbevolking. Ardea, 31:175-290.

Kortlandt A. 1959. Analysis of pair-forming behaviour in the cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Shaw & Nodd.). Proc. Inter. Cong. Zool., 15:839-41.

Laufer, B. 1931. The domestication of the cormorant in China and Japan. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Anthropol. Ser., 18: 200-262.

Lewis H. F. 1937. Results from banding European Cormorants. Bird-Banding, 8: 11-15.

Lewis H. F. 1941. Breeding European cormorants of North America. Auk, 58: 360-363 (and other earlier notes 1925, 1931, 1934).

Madsen F. J. & Spark R. 1950. On the feeding habits of the southern Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in Denmark. Dan. Rev. Game Biol., 1: 45-76.

Peters H. S. 1942. Cormorants found breeding on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Auk, 59: 100.

Portielje A. F. J. 1927. Zur Ethologie bezw. Psychologie von Phalacrocorax carbo subcormoranus. Ardea, 16:107-23.

Steven C. A. 1933. The foods consumed by shags and cormorants around the shores of Cornwall (England). J. Mar. Biol. Asso. U.K., 19:277-92.

Stuart D. 1948. Vital statistics of the Mochrum cormorant colony. Brit. Birds, 41: 194-199.

Tufts R. W. & Townsend C.W. 1924. Notes on the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). Auk, 41: 150.

van Dobben W. 1952. The food of the Cormorant in the Netherlands. Ardea, 40: 1-63.

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S. Volponi